№24568Добавлено: Вс 12 Ноя 06, 11:49 (11 лет тому назад)
В каком смысле "как"? Если утебя нет схемы для неких понятий (то есть, ты их не понимаешь), то пытаешься создать эти схемы - узнаешь что-то, читаешь и т.д. В результате создаются понятийные схемы, запоминаются, и ум может ими в дальнейшем оперировать, будто-бы это некие вещи. _________________ यथावस्थितवस्तुस्थिति
"Читай не затем, чтобы противоречить и опровергать, не затем, чтобы принимать на веру; и не затем, чтобы найти предмет для беседы; но чтобы мыслить и рассуждать." (Ф. Бэкон)
№25612Добавлено: Пт 01 Дек 06, 18:25 (11 лет тому назад)
Продолжим. (Нумерацию перфекций везде добавил я.)
Махаянасамграха, IV пишет:
How are these six perfections the cause for gaining insight into conscious construction only? How are they the result of such insight?
1) All bodhisattvas who abide within this true doctrine are unattached to their own prosperity.
2) They are without fault against discipline.
3) They are not worried over suffering.
4) They are not lazy or indolent in meditation.
5-6) Thus being unfettered to the causes of distraction, they constantly practice singleness of mind, and examining all things in truth,
they gain insight into conscious construction only.
Having already entered the realm of conscious construction only, in virtue of these six perfections, the bodhisattvas then attain the six perfections of a purified and committed disposition. Therefore even if they do not intensify their efforts in regard to the six perfections, in [their] commitment to true discourse and in their reflections of spiritual relish, pleasure, and delight, they continually cultivate [the six perfections] without respite. Therefore they cultivate the six perfections to their final fullness.
Шесть парамит и причина, и результат постижения виджняптиматры.
Aware that there are only ideas and
Attaining a wisdom that clings not,
Their purity of commitment
Is described as a stage of purified disposition.
Мудрость непривязанности. (Какая же это самскара?)
Why are there only six perfections? Because there are only six defiled obstacles that they are meant to counter, because they are the basis for all Buddha qualities, and because they are a support toward maturing all sentient beings.
1-2) The perfections of giving and discipline are meant to counter the causes that prevent embarking [upon the religious life], i.e., attachment to possessions and home.
3-4) When one has embarked upon practice, the perfections of patience and zeal are meant to counter the causes of backsliding and spiritual debility, i.e., the opposition from other transmigrating sentient beings and weariness in one's efforts at bolstering virtues over a long period of time.
5-6) After one has embarked upon practice and overcome this retrogressive debility, the perfections of meditation and wisdom are meant to counter the causes of loss, i.e., distraction and false wisdom.
Therefore the perfections are established to counter these six defiled obstacles. They are numbered as six because they are a basis for all the Buddha qualities.
1-4) The first four perfections are causes of non-distraction, and
5) the perfection [of meditation] is the essence of non-distraction. By relying on this state of nondistraction, one can
6) truly understand the truth of all things [in the perfection of wisdom]
-- whereupon all the true qualities of a Tathagata are generated. Therefore they are six because they are a basis for all the Buddha qualities and because they are a support toward maturing all sentient beings.
1) The perfection of giving succors sentient beings.
2) The perfection of discipline avoids injury to sentient beings.
3) The perfection of patience enables those who suffer abuse from others to avoid feelings of revenge.
4) The perfection of zeal brings forth good roots in others and eliminates bad roots.
Thus benefitted in this fashion, all sentient beings become docile and
5-6) their distracted minds are led to concentration, and thence to liberation, for this is the significance of meditation and wisdom.
Because bodhisattvas teach them through these six perfections, sentient beings mature. They are six because they support the maturation of sentient beings. These are the reasons why there are six perfections.
Is all giving a perfection? Are perfections always giving? It can be that giving is not a perfection and that there is a perfection that is not giving. It is also possible for giving to be a perfection and for there to be a non-perfection that is not giving. The same four possibilities apply to the other perfections also.
Любое даяние парамита? Парамита [даяния] всегда даяние? [Ответ:] Может быть, что даяние не парамита, и что есть парамита [даяния] без даяния. Так же возможно парамите быть даянием, и отсутствию даяния не быть парамитой. Тоже самое применимо ко всем другим паармитам.
Giving, "dana," is called "da" because it destroys miserly envy and eliminates bitter poverty (daridrya). It is called "na" because it makes (anayati) one a wealthy lord, prosperous and resourceful.
Discipline, "sila," is called "si" because it abates (sitikaroti) depraved and evil practices. It is called "la" because it conduces (lambhayati) to good practices and concentration.
Patience, "ksanti," is called "ksa" because it eradicates (ksayati) anger and hatred. It is called "ti" because it conduces to peace (kseme tisthati) for self and others.
Zeal, "virya," is called "vi" because it eradicates (vimocayati) indolence and evil states. It is called "rya" because without failure its practice leads to (niryati) innumerable good states.
Meditation, "dhyana," is called "dhya" because it eliminates (vidhamati) distractions. It is called "na" because it elicits (anayati) a mind focused on an inner object.
Wisdom, "prajna," is called "pra" because it eradicates (pranasati) all false views and wisdoms. It is called "jna" because it truly knows (janati) all things in their varieties.
What are the subdivisions of these perfections? Each has three subdivisions:
1) Giving: the giving of doctrine, of possessions, and of fearlessness.
2) Discipline: that which restrains, that which assembles good qualities, and that which benefits sentient beings.
3) Patience: that which endures harm from others, that which accepts suffering, and that which observes things [with equanimity].
4) Zeal: that which incites oneself to effort, that which intensifies one's efforts, and that which lacks shrinking, diminution, or satiety.
5) Meditation: that which establishes pleasant residences, that which engenders supernatural powers, and that which benefits others.
6) Wisdom: preparatory to non-imagination, non-imagination, and that which is attained subsequent to non-imagination.
Дополнительные четыре парамиты:
In these ten stages one practices the ten perfections in sequence. In the first six stages one practices the six corresponding perfections, while in the later four stages, the four [further] perfections are practiced: (1) the perfection of skillful means: one gives the merits from good roots nurtured through the six perfections to all sentient beings equally so that they may be directed toward supreme awakening; (2) the perfection of vows: this perfection encompasses the variety of vows whereby one excites future causes for engendering the six perfections; (3) the perfection of powers: through the practices of thoughtful investigation, powers subdue everything that counters the perfections and brings forth the six perfections in an uninterrupted continuity; (4) the perfection of knowledge: this perfection establishes the understanding of the first six perfections and causes bodhisattvas in the great assemblies to experience delight in doctrine and to mature sentient beings.
The last four perfections are comprised within that wisdom that is attained subsequently to non-imagination.
How is it that [a scripture reports that] a bodhisattva neither loses anything nor gives to anyone? In that a bodhisattva has well practiced giving everywhere in an unlimited and incalculable fashion, his practice of giving arises in continuity [even though he does not at any particular moment give anything to anyone].
How is it that [a scripture reports thatl a bodhisattva takes pleasure in giving? In that he does not take pleasure in any gift.
How is it that [a scripture reports thatl a bodhisattva believes in giving? In that he does not place his faith in any Buddha Tathagata.
How is it that [a scripture reports thatl a bodhisattva initiates giving? In that in his giving he does not lay plans for himself.
How is it that [a scripture reports that] a bodhisattva constantly delights in giving? In that he has no moment of giving.
How is it that [a scripture reports that] a bodhisattva is capable of great giving? In that he has no rigidity in his giving.
How is it that [a scripture reports thatl a bodhisattva is pure in his giving? In that he engenders avarice.
Haw is it that [a scripture reports that] a bodhisattva is perfected in giving? In that he does not perfect any final point.
How is it that [a scripture reports that] a bodhisattva masters giving? In that he attains no mastery over his giving.
How is it that [a scripture reports that] a bodhisattva is inexhaustible in giving? In that he does not reach inexhaustibility.
One should understand the other perfections of discipline, etc., according to the principle employed in these scriptural passages on giving.
Все остальные парамиты - так-же.
When non-imaginative wisdom is cultivated,
No object appears.
Know then that no external object exists,
And thus there is no conscious construction either.
21. Non-imaginative wisdom and the perfection of wisdom are synonymous. As a scripture teaches, "When a bodhisattva dwells in the perfection of wisdom through the cultivation of non-abiding, he is able to cultivate the other perfections to their fullness." Why is it that by cultivating non-abiding he can cultivate these other perfections to their fullness? Because he is liberated from five kinds of abiding: (1) from abiding in a clinging to the self of the infidels, (2) from abiding in the imagination of bodhisattvas who have not yet gained insight into reality, (3) from abiding in the two extreme views on transmigration and cessation, (4) from abiding in being content merely with the elimination of obstacles, and (5) from abiding in cessation without remainder in disregard of benefit to sentient beings.
22. How then does the wisdom of word-hearers differ from that of bodhisattvas? It differs because of non-imaginative wisdom, since [bodhisattvas] do not imagine things, such as the aggregates, etc. It differs in not being incomplete, since [bodhisattvas] penetrate the two emptinesses [of self and things], enter into an understanding of all the knowables, and maintain actions to benefit all sentient beings. It differs in not abiding [in cessation], since [bodhisattvas] abide in a non-abiding cessation. It differs in duration, since [bodhisattvas] do not fall away and cut themselves off for good in cessation without remainder. It differs in supremacy, because in truth no other vehicle is above this vehicle. On this point a stanza states:
Because of the five superiorities in wisdom [of bodhisattvas] and
In riches both mundane and transcendent,
We say they are not far from perfection.
Chapter VIII: The Distinguishing Characteristics of Learning Wisdom
1. We have now explained the excellence of training in thinking. What then is the excellence in wisdom training? The excellence of wisdom training consists in the superiority of non-imaginative wisdom in ........
It is characterized as being composed of radiant qualities because through the completion of the six perfections, one obtains the excellent capabilities of the ten masteries.
1) Among these [ten masteries], the mastery over the duration of life, the mastery over mind, and the mastery over necessities are [obtained] through the fullness of the perfection of giving.
2) The mastery over act and the mastery over birth are [obtained] through the fullness of the perfection of discipline.
3) The mastery over commitment is [obtained] through the fullness of the perfection of patience.
4) The mastery over vow is [obtained] through the fullness of the perfection of zeal.
5) The mastery over miraculous powers, which include the five supernatural faculties, is [obtained] through the fullness of the perfection of meditation.
6) The mastery over understanding and the mastery over doctrine are [obtained] through the fullness of the perfection of wisdom.
Chapter X: The Distinguishing Characteristics of the Excellence of Wisdom
1. Having explained [in the last chapter] the excellence of quiescent abandonment, we now treat the excellence of wisdom. The excellence of wisdom is to be understood as the three bodies of the Buddha, which are the Essence body, the Enjoyment body, and the Transformation body. ......
№34336Добавлено: Пн 28 Май 07, 17:22 (10 лет тому назад)
Suramgamasamadhi Sutra (tr. Etienne Lamotte)
§44. How then, O Dridhamati, does the bodhisattva arouse the six paramitas at every instant?
1. The bodhisattva has renounced everything (parityaktasarvasva), and his mins is devoid of greed (lobha) and attachment (abhinivesa): such is [633c] his danaparamita.
2. His mind is wholesome (kusala), stilled (prasanta) and absolutely flawless: such is his silaparamita.
3. His mind is essentially indestructible (aksaya)108 and is not injured by and object (sarvavisayair aksata): such is his ksantiparamita.
4. Attentively he considers and analyses the mind (cittam vibhavayati pravicinoti) and recognizes its mark of discernment (cittasya vivekalaksanam vijAnAti): such is his viryaparamita.
5. He is absolutely stilled (atyantopasanta) and controls his mind (cittam damayati): such is his dhyanaparamita.
6. He examines the mind, knows the mind and penetrates the nature of themind: such is his prajnaparamita.
Dridhamati, it is thus that the bodhisattva is Surangamasamadhi posesses the six paramitas at every instant.
№60641Добавлено: Вт 23 Дек 08, 21:09 (9 лет тому назад)
В Сутре Вопросов Брахмы говорится: "Джалавидья, Старейший, обратился к Брахме со словами:
"Бодхисаттвы, отказавшись от всех загрязнений (клеша), можно сказать, выполнили данапарамиту, известную еще как полный отказ;
не отвлекаясь ни на что, они, можно сказать, выполнили силапарамиту, известную также как следование наставлениям;
не испытав вреда ни от чего, они, можно сказать, выполнили ксантипарамиту, известную также как упражнение в воздержании;
не цепляясь ни за что, они, можно сказать, выполнили варьяпарамиту, известную также как упражнение в усердии;
не обитая нигде, они, можно сказать, выполнили дхьянапарамиту, известную также как практикование дхьяны и самадхи;
не говоря ни о чем презрительно, они, можно сказать, выполнили праджнапарамиту, известную также как упражнение в мудрости.
Все вместе они называются шестью методами. "То, что я сейчас скажу об этих шести методах, будет абсолютно тем же — первый (метод) ведет к отказу; второй — к не-возникновению (восприятия, ощущения и т.д.); третий — к отсутствию мышления; четвертый — к отстранению от форм; пятый — к отсутствию приверженности (ума); и шестой — к отсутствию пренебрежительной речи.
Нашел возможно другой перевод.
And regarding the paramitas, the Visesacintibrahmapariprccha Sutra:
Not reflecting is generosity.
Not abiding in any difference is ethics.
Not making any distinctions is patience.
Not adopting or rejecting anything is vigor.
Not being attached is meditation.
Not conceptualizing is knowledge.
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