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Sunnata в Patisambhidamaggе


 
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71183СообщениеДобавлено: Ср 02 Дек 09, 00:29 (7 лет тому назад)    Sunnata в Patisambhidamaggе Ответ с цитатой

The Path of Discrimination (Patisambhidamagga), treatise XX, On Voidness. tr. bh. Nanamoli.

[ TREATISE XX. — ON VOIDNESS ]


1.   [177] 'Thus I heard. At one time the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anāthapin<Jika's Park. Then the venerable Ananda went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side. When he had done so, he asked the Blessed One:4 Venerable sir, "The world is void, the world is void" is said. In what way is the world void?'
     'Because it is void of self or of what belongs to self therefore "the world is void" is said, Ananda. And what is it that is void of self or of what belongs to self? Eye is void of self or of what belongs to self, visible objects are void of self or of what belongs to self, eye consciousness is void of self or of what belongs to self, eye contact is void of self or of what belongs to self; and any feeling that arises born of eye contact, whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, is also void of self or of what belongs to self. Ear is void of self or of what belongs to self, sounds ... Nose is void of self or of what belongs to self, odours ... Tongue is void of self or of what belongs to self, flavours ... Body is void of self or of what belongs to self, tangible objects ... Mind is void of self or of what belongs to self, ideas ... mind consciousness ... mind contact ... any feeling that arises born of mind contact, whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, is also void of self or of what belongs to self. Because it is void of self or of what belongs to self therefore "the world is void" is said' (S iv 54).
2.   There is voidness as voidness, voidness of formations, voidness in change, supreme voidness, voidness by characteristic.
     There is voidness by suppression, voidness by substitution of opposites, voidness by cutting off, voidness by tranquillization, voidness as escape. [178] <cf. I §90: five kinds>
     There is internal voidness, external voidness, voidness in both ways.
     There is similar voidness, dissimilar voidness.
     There is voidness in search, voidness in embracing, voidness in obtainment, voidness in penetration.
     There is voidness in unity, voidness in difference.
     There is voidness in choice, voidness in steadiness, voidness in fathoming, and voidness in the ultimate meaning of all kinds of voidness, which is the terminating of occurrence in [the Arahant], who is fully aware.
3.   What is voidness as voidness?
     Eye is void of self or of what belongs to self or of what is permanent or everlasting or eternal or not-subject-to-change. Ear... Nose... Tongue... Body ... Mind is void of self or of what belongs to self or of what is permanent or everlasting or eternal or not-subject-to-change.
     This is voidness as voidness.
4.   What is voidness of formations?
     There are three kinds of formation: the formation of merit, the formation of demerit, and the formation of imperturbability.
     The formation of merit is void of the formation of demerit and of the formation of imperturbability. The formation of demerit is void of the formation of merit and of the formation of imperturbability. The formation of imperturbability is void of the formation of merit and of the formation of demerit.
     There are these three kinds of formation.
     There are three more kinds of formation: the body formation, the speech formation, and the cognizance formation.
     The body formation is void of the speech formation and the cognizance formation. The speech formation is void of the body formation and the cognizance formation. The cognizance formation is void of the body formation and the speech formation.
     There are these three kinds of formation.
     There are three more kinds of formation: past formations, future formations, and presently arisen formations. Past formations are void of future and presently-arisen formations. Future formations are void of past formations and presently-arisen formations. Presently-arisen formations are void of past formations and future formations.
     There are these three kinds of formation.
     This is voidness of formations.
5.   What is voidness in change? Born materiality is void of individual essence;1 disappeared2 materiality is both changed and void. Born feeling is void of individual essence; disappeared feeling is both changed and void. Born perception ... [and so on with 199 of the 201 ideas listed in Tr. I §5, omitting the last two members of the Dependent Origination, up to] ... Born being is void of individual essence; [179] disappeared being is both changed and void.
6.   What is supreme voidness? This idea is supreme, this idea is best, this idea is excellent, that is to say, the stilling of all formations, the relinquishing of all substrata of being, the exhaustion (destruction) of craving, the fading away of greed, cessation, nibbana.
     This is supreme voidness.
7.   What is voidness by characteristic?
     There are two kinds of characteristics: the characteristic of the fool and the characteristic of the wise man. The characteristic of the fool is void of the characteristic of the wise man, and the characteristic of the wise man is void of the characteristic of the fool (A i 102).
     There are three kinds of characteristic: the characteristic of arising, the characteristic of fall, and the characteristic of the alteration of what is present. The characteristic of arising is void of the characteristic of fall and the characteristic of the alteration of what is present. The characteristic of fall is void of the characteristic of arising and the characteristic of the alteration of what is present. The characteristic of the alteration of what is present is void of the characteristic of arising and the characteristic of fall.
     Materiality's characteristic of arising is void of its characteristic of fall and its characteristic of the alteration of what is present; materiality's characteristic of fall is void of its characteristic of arising and its characteristic of the alteration of what is present; materiality's characteristic of the alteration of what is present is void of its characteristic of arising and its characteristic of fall. Feeling's characteristic of arising ... [and so on with all the rest of the 201 ideas listed in Tr. I §5 up to] ... ageing-and-death's characteristic of the alteration of what is present is void of its characteristic of arising and its characteristic of fall.
     This is voidness by characteristic.
8.   What is voidness by suppression?
     Zeal for sensual desires is suppressed and is void through renunciation. Ill-will is suppressed and is void through non-ill-will... [and so on with the rest of the seven hindrances and their opposites, the four jhanas, the four immaterial attainments, the eighteen principal insights, and the four paths, up to] ... all defilements are suppressed and are void through the arahant path.
     This is voidness by suppression. [180]
9.   What is voidness by substitution of opposites?
     Through renunciation zeal for sensual-desires is void by substitution of that opposite. Through non-ill-will ill-will is void by substitution of that opposite ... [and so on as above, omitting the four paths, up to] ... Through contemplation of turning away misinterpretation due to bondage is void by substitution of that opposite.
     This is voidness by substitution of opposites.
10.   What is voidness by cutting off?
     Through renunciation zeal for sensual-desires is both cut off and void. Through non-ill-will... [and so on up to]... Through the arahant path all defilements are both cut off and are void.
     This is voidness by cutting off.
11.   What is voidness by tranquillization?
     Through renunciation zeal for sensual-desires is both tranquillized and void. Through non-ill-will ... [and so on up to] ... Through the arahant path all defilements are both tranquillized and void.
     This is voidness by tranquillization.
12.   What is voidness as escape?
     Through renunciation zeal for sensual-desires is both escaped from and is void. Through non-ill-will ... [and so on up to] [181] ... Through the arahant path all formations are both escaped from and are void.
     This is voidness as escape.
13.   What is internal voidness?
     Internally the eye is void of self or of what belongs to self or of what is permanent or everlasting or external or not-subject-to-change. Internally the ear... Internally the nose... Internally the tongue... Internally the body ... Internally the mind is void of self or of what belongs to self or of what is permanent or everlasting or eternal or not-subject-to-change.
     This is internal voidness.
14.   What is external voidness?
     Externally visible objects are void of self or of what belongs to self or of what is permanent or everlasting or eternal or not-subject-to-change. Externally sounds ... Externally odours ... Externally flavours ... Externally tangible objects... Externally ideas are void of self or of what belongs to self or of what is permanent or everlasting or eternal or notsubject- to-change.
     This is external voidness.
15.   What is voidness in both ways?
     Internally the eye and externally visible objects are both void of self or of what belongs to self or of what is permanent or everlasting or eternal or not-subject-to-change. Internally the ear and externally sounds... Internally the nose and externally odours... Internally the tongue and externally flavours... Internally the body and externally tangible objects... Internally the mind and externally ideas are both void of self or of what belongs to self or of what is permanent or everlasting or eternal or not-subject-to-change.
     This is voidness in both ways.
16.   What is similar voidness?
     The six internal bases are both similar and void. The six external bases are both similar and void. The six groups of consciousness are both similar and void. The six groups of contact are both similar and void. The six groups of feeling are both similar and void. The six groups of perception arebothsimilarand void. The six groups of volition are both similar and void.
     This is similar voidness.
17.   What is dissimilar voidness?
     The six internal bases are both dissimilar from and void of the six external bases. The six external bases are both dissimilar from and void of the six groups of consciousness. The six groups of consciousness are dissimilar from and void of the six groups of contact. The six [182] groups of contact are dissimilar from and void of the six groups of feeling. The six groups of feeling are dissimilar from and void of the six groups of perception. The six groups of perception are dissimilar from and void of the six groups of volition.
     This is dissimilar voidness.
18.   What is voidness in search?
     Search for renunciation is void of zeal for sensual-desires. Search for opposites, the four jhanas, the four immaterial attainments, the eighteen principal insights, and the four paths,... up to]... Search for the arahant path is void of all defilements.
     This is voidness in search.
19.   What is voidness in embracing?
     The embracing of renunciation is void of zeal for sensual-desires. The embracing of non-ill-will... [and so on]... The embracing of the arahant path is void of all defilements.
     This is voidness in embracing.
20.   What is voidness in obtainment?
     The obtainment of renunciation is void of zeal for sensual-desires. The obtainment of non-ill-will ... [and so on] ... The obtainment of the arahant path is void of all defilements.
     This is voidness in obtainment.
21.   What is voidness in penetration?
     The penetrating of renunciation is void of zeal for sensual-desires. The penetrating of non-ill-will ... [and so on] ... The penetrating of the arahant path is void of all defilements.
     This is voidness in penetration. [183]
22.   What are voidness in unity and voidness in difference?
     Zeal for sensual-desires is difference and renunciation is unity; there is voidness of zeal for sensual-desires in one willing the unity of renunciation. Ill-will is difference ... [and so on]... All defilements are difference and the arahant path is unity; there is voidness of all defilements in one willing the arahant path.
     This is voidness in unity and voidness in difference.
23.   What is voidness in choice?
     Choice of renunciation is void of zeal for sensual-desires. Choice of non-ill-will [and so on] ... Choice of the arahant path is void of all defilements.
     This is voidness in choice.
24.   What is voidness in steadiness?
     Steadiness of renunciation is void of zeal for sensual-desires. Steadiness of non-ill-will... [and so on]... Steadiness of the arahant path is void of all defilements.
     This is voidness in steadiness.
25.   What is voidness in fathoming?
     Fathoming renunciation is void of zeal for sensual-desires. Fathoming non-ill-will ... [and so on] ... Fathoming the arahant path is void of all defilements.
     This is voidness in fathoming.
26.   What is voidness in the ultimate meaning of all kinds of voidness, which is the terminating of occurrence in [the Arahant], who is fully aware?
     Here [in what remains of this same life] through renunciation one who is fully aware terminates the occurrence of zeal for sensual-desires; through non-ill-will he terminates the occurrence of ill-will; through perception of light... [and so on]... through the arahant path he terminates all defilements.
     Or else, through the nibbana principle without [result of past] clinging left, in one who is fully aware this occurrence of eye ends and no further occurrence of eye arises; this occurrence of ear... of nose3... of tongue... of body ... this occurrence of mind ends and no further occurrence of mind arises.
     This is voidness in the ultimate meaning of all kinds of voidness, which is the terminating of occurrence in [the Arahant], who is fully aware.4
Treatise on voidness.

_______________
Notes
1 This seems to be the only Pitaka reference for the term sabhāva (individual essence). '"Void of individual essence": here sabhāva (individual essence) is sayam bhāvo (essence by itself); arising of itself (sayam eva uppādo) is the meaning. Or sabhāva is sako bhāvo (own essence); own arising (attano yeva uppādo). Because of existence in dependence on conditions (paccayāyattavuttittā) there is in it no essence by itself or essence of its own, thus it is "void of individual essence". What is meant is that it is void of essence by itself or of its own essence. Or else it is the essence that itself has (sakassa bhāvo); for each single idea among the various ideas beginning with the earth principle is itself (sako), and "essence" is a figurative term for idea; and each single idea does not have any other idea called an "essence", therefore it is void of any essence other than itself: the meaning is that itself is void of another essence. Hence what is meant is that a single idea has a single individual essence. Or alternatively "void of individual essence" (sabhāvena suññam) is to be taken as void through having voidness as its individual essence (suññasabhāvena suññam). What is meant? What is meant is void owing to voidness-as-voidness and not void owing to some other figurative kind of voidness. But if someone should say: 'Own essence is individual essence; it is void of that individual essence. What is meant? An idea is called an "essence"; that [essence (bhāvo)] is distinguished by the prefix "individual" (sa) in comparison with any other and is thus called "individual essence" (sa-bhāvo). Because of the nonexistence of any idea whatever it is the non-existence of materiality that is expressed by the words "born materiality is void of individual essence"' It should be argued thus: that being so, the words 'born materiality' would be contradicted; for what is devoid of arising is not called 'born'. For nibbana is devoid of arising and that is not called 'born'. Hence only the born would here be void of birth as individual essence, and instead of continuing to say that 'birth and ageing-and-death are void by individual essence' the description would end with 'being'. If the term 'born' (vijāta) were applicable to what is devoid of arising, then 'born birth' and 'born ageing-and-death' would have to be said. Because the word 'born' is not applicable to birth and ageing-and-death, which are devoid of arising, therefore the words 'void of individual essence means non-existent' contradict the word 'born' since what is non-existent is devoid of arising. And the word 'void' for what is non-existent contradicts the Blessed One's use of it above for the 'world' and also the words of the books of logic and linguistics (ñāyasaddagantha); and it contradicts many logical arguments. Therefore that assertion should be rejected as rubbish. In many such passages in the Buddhaword as this 'Bhikkhus, what sages in the world say is not, of that too I say that it is not; what sages in the world say is, of that too I say that it is ... Sages in the world say of impermanent, painful and changeable materiality that it is, and I too say of it that it is' (S iii 138-9), and in many logical arguments, ideas exist in their own moments' (Sdhp 460-1 Se, see PTS edn. pp. 634-5). <See pp. xvii-xviii, xiii, xlviiif>
2 'Vigatam rūpam — disappeared materiality': for the word 'disappeared' (vigata) see 'disappearance condition' (vigata-paccaya) (TkP 1).
3 Read ghānapavattam.
4 For translation of the commentary to this passage (PTS edn. p. 638) see Vism Trsl. Ch. XVI n. 25.


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71184СообщениеДобавлено: Ср 02 Дек 09, 01:38 (7 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Краткий конспект.

Пустота как пустота - глаз пуст от atta, от того, что приадлежит atta, от постоянного (nicca), неизменного (dhuva), вечного (sassata), неподверженного изменениям (a-viprainama-dhamma?). Также для уха, носа, языка, тела, ума.
Аналогично внутренняя пустота (для органов чувств), внешняя пустота (объекты чувств), пустота обоих (...).
Пустота самскар - для трех видов самскар: неблагих, благих и нейтральныех - неблагие самскары пусты от благих самскар и от нейтральных, благие самскары пусты от неблагих самскар и нейтральных, нейтральные самскары пусты от благих и неблагих. Аналогично для трех видов самскар - тела, речи и ума; и для прошлых, настоящих и будущих.
Пустота в изменении - рождённое материальное пусто от собственной сущности (см. сноску с комментариями), исчезнувшая материальность и изменилась, и пуста. Далее аналогично для всех 201 дхамм.
Высшая пустота - высшая, лучшая, превосходная дхамма - успокоение всех самскар, оставление субстрата существования, уничтожение жажды, исчезновение жадности, прекращение, ниббана.
Пустота по характеристике - для двух характеристик - характеристика мудрого и характеристика глупого - характеристика умного пуста от характеристика глупого, характеристика глупого пуста от характеристики умного. Аналогично для трех характеристик - возникновения, прекращения и измения. Также для всех 201 дхамм - характеристика возникновение рупы пустоа от характеристики пркращения рупы и т.д.
Пустота подобия - 6 внутренних аятан подобны и пусты, также для 6 групп внешних аятан, сознания, контакта, чувств, перцепций, волиций.
Пустота различия - 6 групп внутренних аятан отличаются и пусты от 6 групп внешних аятан, так же дял остальных групп.
Пустота по подавлению - страсть к чувствам подавляется и пуста через отречение, аналогично для враждебности и остальным препятствиям, 8 джханам, 18 прозрениям, 4 путям, до все омрачения подавляются и пусты через путь араханта.
Аналогично пустоты зерез замену противоположности, отсечения, успокоения, избегания.
Пустота в поиске - поиск отречения пуст от страсти к чувствам. И дальше аналогично пустоте по подавлению - до: поиск пути араханта пуст от всех омрачений.
Аналогично пустота в принятии (отречения и т.д.), получении, проникновении, в единстве и различии, выборе, прочности, понимании - пусты от страсти к чувствам и т.д.
Пустота в высшем смысле всех пустот, прекращение возникновения для полностью осознающего араханта - через отречение прекращение страсти к чувствам (kāmacchanda), через невраждебность прекращение враждебности, через восприятие света ... и т.д. до через путь араханта прекращенеи всех омрачений. Или же - через принцип ниббаны без остатка [плодов прошлой] упаданы, в том кто полностью осознаёт прекращается глаз и не возникает заново, и аналогично дял остальных органов чувств.

Список пустот на пали.
Цитата:
47. Suññasuññaṃ [suññaṃ suññaṃ (syā.)], saṅkhārasuññaṃ, vipariṇāmasuññaṃ, aggasuññaṃ, lakkhaṇasuññaṃ, vikkhambhanasuññaṃ, tadaṅgasuññaṃ, samucchedasuññaṃ, paṭippassaddhisuññaṃ , nissaraṇasuññaṃ, ajjhattasuññaṃ , bahiddhāsuññaṃ, dubhatosuññaṃ, sabhāgasuññaṃ, visabhāgasuññaṃ, esanāsuññaṃ, pariggahasuññaṃ, paṭilābhasuññaṃ, paṭivedhasuññaṃ, ekattasuññaṃ, nānattasuññaṃ, khantisuññaṃ, adhiṭṭhānasuññaṃ, pariyogāhaṇasuññaṃ [pariyogāhanasuññaṃ (syā.)], sampajānassa pavattapariyādānaṃ sabbasuññatānaṃ paramatthasuññaṃ.
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