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62456СообщениеДобавлено: Вс 01 Фев 09, 14:23 (8 лет тому назад)    Темпераменты (carita) Ответ с цитатой

По Netti.

Десять оснований для омрачений (ten grounds of defilements):
§674. Lions'-Play Guide-Line :
1. Four Nutriments (AhAra) [physical nutriment, contact, choice, and consciousness (D. iii, 228)].1
2. Four Perversions (vipallAsa) [seeing beauty (in ugly), pleasure (in painful), permanence (in impermanent), and self, where there are none (in not-self) (A. ii, 52)].
3. Four Assumptions (upAdAna) [sensual-desire, views, virtue-and-duty, and self-doctrine (D. iii, 230; but see §§257 and 484-7)].
4. Four Bonds (yoga) [sensual-desire, being, views, and ignorance (D. iii, 230)].
5. Four Ties (gantha) [covetousness, ill-will, misapprehension of virtueand-duty, and insistence that 'only this is true' (D. iii, 230)].
6. Four Taints (Asava) [sensual-desire, being, views, and ignorance (A. ii, 211)].
7. Four Floods (ogha) [sensual-desire, being, views, and ignorance (D. iii, 230)]
8. Four Barbs (salla) [lust, hate, conceit, and delusion (cf. Pe 245)].
9. Four Steadying-points for consciousness (thiti) [form, feeling, perception, and determinations (D. iii, 228)].
10. Four Goings on Bad Ways (agati) [through will, hate, fear, and delusion {D. iii, 228)] (cf. Pe 244).
Сгруппированы по четыре штуки неспроста:
1. В каждом из первых основ присутствует соотвесттвующая следующая основа. In the first nutriment there is the first perversion. И далее во втором - второе, и т.д. до четвертой. А in the first perversion there is the first assumption, и т.д. до девятой. Отношение указано как "in", видимо имеется ввиду "включено".
2. Для каждого: первые и вторые несовершенства танха-темперамента (tanhAcarita), третьи и четвертые несовершенства диттхи-темперамента (ditthicarita).
3. В каждой четверке пункты соответствуют:
   1-2) Perversion 2 [occurs] in respect to 1.
   2-3) One steady in perversion 2 assumes (sensual desires, future being, view that has expectant relish for the roundabout, having supposed a self), this is called (sensual-desire-assumtion, being-assumption, view-assumption, self-doctrine-assumption). (Список отличается от 3.)
   3-4) He is fettered (bound) by (sensual desires, kinds of being, evil view, ignorance) through (sensual-desire-assumtion, being-assumption, view-assumption, self-doctrine-assumption), this is called bond of 4.  
   4-5) One steady in the (sensual desires, kinds of being, evil view, ignorance) ties body with 5, this is called body-tie of 5.
   5-6) His defilements thus tied taint him as underlying tendency or as [open] obession: there is taint of 6 through 5.
   6-7) When these four taints abound they are floods, so with the abundance of taints' there is abundance of floods: there is flood 7 throught taint 6.
   7-8) These four floods, accompanied by the underlying tendencies, intrude into one's inclinations till they strike one's heart and remain steady there: hence they are called 'barbs'. There is a barb of 8 with the flood of 7.
   8-9) When one's consciousness is gripped by these four barbs it shapes itself to the following four ideas, namely to form, to feeling, to perception, and to determinations. 9 is the steadying-point for consciousness passing on when consciousness has an infection of relishing through barb of 8.
   9-10) When one's consciousness is stiffened by these four steadying-points for consciousness one goes a bad way because of the following four ideas, namely because of will, because of hate, because of fear, and because of delusion. It is owing to 8 that one goas bad way through 10.
4. Для каждого из четырех соответственно: their meaning is one and only the phrasing is different.
   1) These are imperfections in a person of lusting temperament.
   2) These are imperfections in a person of hating temperament.
   3) These are imperfections in one of dull view-temperament.
   4) These are imperfections in one of intelligent view-temperament.
5. Для каждого из четырех соотвественно:
   1) и 2) come to diagnosis through the dispositionless gateway to liberation,
   3) through the void [gateway to liberation],
   4) through the signless [gateway to liberation].

§713. Here is the outlet (cf. counterpart at §674)::
1. Four Ways (§42; D. iii, 228). (the painful way with sluggish acquaintanceship, and the painful way with swift acquaintanceship, the pleasant way with sluggish acquaintanceship, and the pleasant way with swift acquaintanceship)
2. Four Foundations of Mindfulness (satipatthAna) [body, feelings, cognizance, ideas (D. iii, 221; but cf. §4 and §730)]. (state of a contemplator-of-the-body-as-a-body, contemplator-of-feelings-as-feelings, contemplator-of-cognizance-as-cognizance, contemplator-of-ideas-as-ideas).
3. Four Meditations (jhana) [1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th (D. iii, 222)].
4. Four Abidings (vihara) [heavenly, divine, noble, imperturbable (D. iii, 220)].
5. Four Right Endeavours (sammappadhAna) [the effort to prevent the arising of unarisen unprofit, to get rid of the arisen, to arouse unarisen profit, and to increase the arisen (D. iii, 221)].
6. Four Wonderful Marvellous Ideas (acchariya-abbhutadhamma) [abandoning conceit, eliminating reliance, abandoning ignorance, pacification of being (Pe 247)].
7. Four Expressions (adhitthAna) [truth, generosity, understanding, peace (D. iii, 229)].
8. Four Ways of keeping Concentration in Being (samAdhibhavAnA) [will, energy, cognizance, inquiry = 4 bases for success (D. iii, 222)].
9. Four ideas dealing with pleasure [faculty-restraint, ardour, discovery, relinquishment of all essentials of existence (Pe 247)].
10. Four Measureless States (appamAna) [lovingkindness, compassion, gladness, onlooking-equanimity (D. iii, 223; Pe 247)].1
1. Для всех 10, каждое из 4х "corresponds to" другим последовательно 1-2, 2-3 и тд.
2. Для всех 10, каждое из 4х последовательно: When the (X:Nth) is kept in being, made much of, it fulfils the (X+1:Nth).
3. Четыре направления: сгруппированы соответствующие номера (все первые - первое, все вторые - второе и т.д.)
4. Соответственно, для каждой группы: their meaning is one and only the phrasing is different.
   1) These are the medicine for a person of lusting temperament (rAgacarita).
   2) These are the medicine for a person of hating temperament (dosacarita).
   3) These are the medicine for a person of dull view-temperament (manda ditthicarita).
   4) These are the medicine for a person of intelligent view-temperament (udatt(h)a ditthicarita).
5. Соответственно:
   1) и 2) are dispositionless gateway to liberation;
   3) is the void gateway to liberation;
   4) is the signless gateway to liberation.

6. Десять оснований для омрачений "opposites" десяти освобождениям, первое первому, второе второму и т.д. Это называется "The Play of Lions".
Цитата:
740. The Lions are the Enlightened Ones, the Hermit Enlightened Ones, and the hearers who have destroyed lust, hate, and delusion. Their play [consists in] keeping in being, in verification, and in termination. The play is the expression of the faculties [beginning with faith (cf. §670), and] the play is the non-expression of the pervertednesses: 1 the [four] faculties [of energy, mindfulness, concentration, and understanding] are the pasture for the true object of [the faculty of] faith, the pervertednesses being the pasture for defilement.

(42) Finding outlet (темперамент, способности):
   (tanhacarita, dull): foundations of mindfulness as support with the mindfulness faculty on painful way with sluggish acquaintanceship.
   (tanhacarita, intelligent): [four] meditations as support with concentration faculty on painful way with swift acquintanceship (abhinna).
   (ditthicarita, dull): right endeavors as support with energy faculty on the way that is pleasant with sluggish acquaintanceship.
   (ditthicarita, intelligent): truths as support with understanding faculty on the way that is pleasant with swift acquaintanceship.
   (tanhacarita, both): by the way of insight heralded by quiet, to the heart-deliverance due to the fading of lust.
   (ditthicarita, both): by way of quiet heralded by insight, to the understanding-deliverance due to the fading of ignorance.
Цитата:
44. Herein, those who find the outlet (cf. §§529ff.) by the ways heralded by quiet can be brought to abandoning1 by means of the Conversion-of-Relishing Guide-Line (§§644-72), while those who find the outlet by the ways heralded by insight can be brought to abandoning by means of the Lions'-Play Guide-Line (§§673-757).

Правильное обучение: Blessed One teaches ugliness to a person of lusting temperament, teaches loving kindness to a person of hating temperament, teaches dependent-arising to a person of deluded temperament.
Неправильное обучение: for if he taught to a person of lusting temperament the heart-deliverance of loving kindness, or the pleasant way with sluggish acquaintanceship, or the pleasant way with swift acquaintanceship, or the kind of abandoning heralded by insight, the teaching could not be construed.

Цитата:
   529. A person of lusting temperament finds outlet by the signless gateway to liberation, training by the training in higher cognizance, abandoning greed as a root of unprofit, not approaching contact to be felt as pleasant, diagnosing pleasant feeling, washing out the stain of lust, shaking off the dust of lust, vomiting forth the poison of lust, extinguishing the fire of lust, extracting the barb of lust, and disentangling the tangle of lust (cf. §44).
   530. A person of hating temperament finds outlet by the dispositionless gateway to liberation, training by the training in higher virtue, abandoning hate as a root of unprofit, not approaching contact to be felt as painful, diagnosing painful feeling, washing out the stain of hate, shaking off the dirt of hate, vomiting forth the poison of hate, extinguishing the fire of hate, extracting the barb of hate, and disentangling the tangle of hate.
   531. A person of deluded temperament finds outlet by the void gateway to liberation, training by the training in higher understanding, abandoning delusion as a root of unprofit, not approaching contact to be felt as neither-painful-nor-pleasant, diagnosing neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, washing out the stain of delusion, shaking off the dirt of delusion, vomiting forth the poison of delusion, extinguishing the fire of delusion, extracting the barb of delusion, and disentangling the tangle of delusion.
   532. Herein, the void gateway to liberation is the understanding category, the signless gateway to liberation is the concentration category, and the dispositionless gateway to liberation is the virtue category.1 When he keeps in being the three gateways to liberation, he keeps in being the three categories, and when he keeps in being the three categories he keeps in being the Noble Eightfactored Path.
   533. [91] Herein, right speech, right action, and right livelihood, are the virtue category; right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration, are the concentration category; right view, and right intention, are the understanding category (cf. M. i, 301). 534. Herein, the virtue category and the concentration category are quiet, while the understanding category is insight.

[The Conversion of Relishing Guide-Line:
   645. Creatures with ignorance for their hindrance and fettered [by craving] to ignorance, explore on the side of ignorance. They are called 'of view-temperament'. Creatures with craving as their fetter and fettered to craving, explore on the side of craving. They are called 'of craving-temperament'.
   646. [110] Those of view-temperament who have gone forth [into homelessness] outside this [dispensation] abide devoted to the pursuit of self-torment. Those of craving-temperament who have gone forth [into homelessness] outside this [dispensation] abide devoted to the pursuit of indulging sensual pleasure among sensual desires (cf. Pe 243-4).
   647. Herein what is the reason why those of view-temperament who have gone forth outside this [dispensation] abide devoted to the pursuit of self-torment, why those of craving-temperament who have gone forth outside this [dispensation] abide devoted to the pursuit of indulging sensual pleasure among sensual desires ? Outside this [dispensation] there is no definition of truth, so whence any explanation of the four truths, or any skill in quiet and insight,1 or any reaching the pleasure of peace ?
   648. With cognizance distorted through having no acquaintanceship with the pleasure of peace, they have made such pronouncements as <There is no pleasure [arrived at] through pleasure: pleasure is to be arrived at tltrough pain (suffering)> (M. i, 93), and <He who cultivates sensual desires enriches the world; he who enriches the world lays by much merit>( ). So perceiving, and with such views, aspiring to pleasure through pain, [or] perceiving merit in sensual desires, they abide devoted to the pursuit of selftorment and devoted to the pursuit of indulging sensual pleasure. Such being their acquaintanceship, they enrich only the sickness, they enrich only the boil, they enrich only the barb. Overwhelmed by the sickness, oppressed by the boil, wounded by the barb, doing their diving in and out of the hells, the animal womb, ghosts and demons, making their existence co-essential with exhilaration and depression,1 they find no medicine for the sickness, the boil, the barb.
Цитата:
   652. (iii) [Again] herein, one of view-temperament approaches form as self, approaches feeling . . . perception . . . determinations . . . consciousness as self. One of craving-temperament approaches self as possessing form, or form as in self, or self as in form; or he approaches self as possessing feeling . . . possessing perception . . . possessing determinations . . . possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness. This is what is called the twenty-based embodiment view (cf. M. i, 300; Pe 242).

   657. (hi) Herein, those who approach form as self, who approach feeling . . . perception . . . determinations . . . consciousness as self, are called annihilationists. Those who approach self as possessing form, or form as in self, or self as in form, who approach self as possessing feeling . . . possessing perception . . . possessing determinations . . . possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness, are called eternalists (cf. Pe 242).

Цитата:
   666. Herein, when one of view-temperament has gone forth [into homelessness] in this dispensation he becomes one who lives with continuous1 effacement, having keen regard for effacement, while when one of craving-temperament has gone forth in this dispensation he is one who lives with the training preserved, having keen regard for the training (cf. Pe 243).
   667. When one of view-temperament finds a footing in the certainty of rightness (see S. iii, 225), he is a Follower by Ideas, while when one of craving-temperament finds a footing in the certainty of rightness, he is a Follower by Faith (cf. Pe 243).
   668. One of view-temperament finds the outlet on the pleasant way with sluggish acquaintanceship and with swift acquaintanceship, and one of craving-temperament finds the outlet on the painful way with sluggish acquaintanceship and with swift acquaintanceship (cf. §42).
   669. Herein, what is the reason (cf. §647) why one of craving-temperament finds outlet on the painful way with sluggish acquaintanceship and with swift acquaintanceship ? Because sensual desires have not been given up by him. [113] When he is secluding himself from sensual desires, he relinquishes1 painfully and sluggishly gains knowledge2 of the True Idea. Now as to one of view-temperament, from the very beginning he is no seeker of sensual desires. [So] when he is secluding himself from them he relinquishes swiftly and he swiftly gains knowledge of the True Idea (cf. Pe 243).
   670. The painful way is of two kinds: with sluggish acquaintanceship and with swift acquaintanceship. And the pleasant way is of two kinds: with sluggish acquaintanceship and with swift acquaintanceship. And creatures are of two kinds: with blunt faculties and with keen faculties.1 Those with blunt faculties relinquish sluggishly and sluggishly gain knowledge of the True Idea. Those with keen faculties relinquish swiftly and swiftly gain knowledge of the True Idea (cf. Pe 243).
   671. These are the four ways. It is by these same four ways that anyone at all ever has found the outlet, or finds the outlet, or will find the outlet (cf. Pe 244).
   672. That is how Noble Ones describe a tetrad path {Pe 244) for unwise folk to cultivate, for fools to desire, for the lustful to master their lust by, the aim of which is conversion of relishing, of craving for being.

Цитата:
   755. [Now although] four in this way [yet] they are three, being three [yet] they are two,1 namely one of craving-temperament and one of view-temperament (§645; cf. Pe 253-4).
756. The corruption of these two types of persons is as follows:
   1. Craving and ignorance (S. ii, 178),
   2. consciencelessness and shamelessness (A. i, 95),
   3. unmindfulness and unawareness (A. i, 95), [127]
   4. [unreason and] unreasoned attention,1
   5. idleness and difficult admonishability,
   6. I-making and my-making (A. i, 132),
   7. faithlessness and negligence,
   8. not hearing faith's true object, and non-restraint,
   9. covetousness and ill will,
   10. hindrances and fetters (S. ii, 178; cf. Ps. i, 143),
   11. anger and spite (A. i, 95),
   12. contempt and domineering (A. i, 95),
   13. envy and avarice (A. i, 95),
   14. deceit and fraud (A. i, 95),
   15. the eternalist view and the annihilationist view (cf. S. iv, 400-1; cf. Pe 254).
757. The cleansing of these two types of persons is as follows:
   1. Quiet and insight (A. i, 61),
   2. conscience and shame (A. i, 95),
   3. mindfulness and awareness (A. i, 95),
   4. [reason and] reasoned attention,1
   5. instigation of energy and easy admonishability,
   6. knowledge of the True Idea and knowledge of inferences,
   7. knowledge of exhaustion and knowledge of non-arising,
   8. faith and diligence,
   9. hearing faith's true object and restraint,
   10. uncovetousness and non-ill-will,
   11. heart-deliverance due to fading of lust and understandingdeliverance due to fading of ignorance (A. i, 61),
   12. fewness of wishes and content,
   13. unanger and unspitefulness (A. i, 96),
   14. uncontempt and undomineering (A. i, 95),
   15. abandoning of envy and abandoning of avarice (cf. A. i, 95),
   16. science and deliverance (A. i, 83),
   17. the kind of liberation whose object is determined and the kind of liberation whose object is undetermined,2
   18. the extinction element with trace left and the extinction element without trace left (Iti. 38).

947. У людей могут быть различные комбинации темпераментов включая все три вместе.
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62502СообщениеДобавлено: Пн 02 Фев 09, 10:29 (8 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Четыре оставления (pahAna) явно соответствуют четырем типам:
Цитата:
   484. Herein, what is co-ordination of abandoning ? One who abides contemplating the body as a body abandons the perversion that there is beauty in the ugly, physical nutriment comes within his diagnosis, he is without assuming in regard to sensual-desire assuming, he is unbound in regard to the bond of sensual desire, he is dissociated in regard to the bodily tie of covetousness, he is taintless in regard to the taint of sensual desire, he has crossed over the flood of sensual desire, he is barbless as regards the barb of lust,1 form as a steadying-point for consciousness passing on2 comes within his diagnosis, his lust for the form element is abandoned, and he does not go a bad way through will.
   485. One who abides contemplating feelings as feelings abandons the perversion that there is pleasure in the painful, contact as nutriment comes within his diagnosis, he is without assuming in regard to existence-assuming,1 he is unbound in regard to the bond of existence, he is dissociated in regard to the bodily tie of ill-will, he is taintless in regard to the taint of existence, he has [84] crossed over the flood of existence, he is barbless in regard to the barb of hate, feeling as a steadying-point for consciousness passing on comes within his diagnosis, his lust for the feeling element2 is abandoned, and he does not go a bad way through hate.
   486. One who abides contemplating cognizance as cognizance abandons the perversion that there is permanence in the impermanent, consciousness as nutriment comes within his diagnosis, he is without assuming in regard to wrong-view assuming, he is unbound in regard to the bond of views, he is dissociated in regard to the bodily tie of misapprehension of virtue and duty, he is taintless in regard to the taint of views, he has crossed over the flood of views, he is barbless in regard to the barb of conceit, perception as a steadying-point for consciousness passing on comes within his diagnosis, his lust for the perception-element is abandoned, and he does not go a wrong way through fear.
   487. One who abides contemplating ideas as ideas abandons the perversion that there is self in the not-self, mind-choice as nutriment comes within his diagnosis, he is without assuming in regard to selfdoctrine assuming, he is unbound in regard to the bond of ignorance, he is dissociated in regard to the bodily tie of insistence that 'only this is the truth', he is taintless in regard to the taint of ignorance, he has crossed over the flood of ignorance, he is barbless in regard to the barb of delusion, determinations as a steadying-point for consciousness passing on comes within his diagnosis, his lust for the determinations-element is abandoned, and he does not go a bad way through delusion.
Четыре основы по отношению к скандхам:
Цитата:
   494. Herein, form is the first ground for perversion, namely that there is beauty in the ugly; feeling is the second ground for perversion, namely that there is pleasure in the painful; perception and determinations are the third ground for perversion, namely that there is self in the not-self; and consciousness is the fourth ground for perversion, namely that there is permanence in the impermanent (cf. Pe 20-1).
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64074СообщениеДобавлено: Сб 14 Мар 09, 08:35 (8 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Для сравнения у Асанги в AS такая раскладка типов:
Цитата:
 (ii) The object in view of the purification of nature is fivefold:
   (1) For those whose character is dominated by lust (bhūyorāgacarita), the object is the impurity of the body (aśubha).
   (2) For those whose character is dominated by hatred (bhūyodveṣacarita), the object is the development of compassion (karuṇabhāvanā).
   (3) For those whose character is dominated by ignorance (bhūyomohacarita), the object is meditation on conditioned production (pratītyasamutpāda) which concerns the conditioned nature (idam pratyayatā).
   (4) For those whose character is dominated by vanity and pride (madamānacarita), the object is analysis of the elements (dhātuprabheda).
   (5) For those whose character is dominated by distraction (vitarkacarita),368 the object is attention to the breath (ānāpānasmṛti).369
_______
368 Here vitarka does not mean ‘reasoning’.
369 According to Vsm there are mainly six types of natures: ragacarita, dosa-, moha-, saddhā- buddhi- and vitakkacarita. But by mixing these, some teachers arrive at fourteen types, and thus it is possible to add many other types. But there are only six main types. Some add also three other types: taṇhacarita, mānacarita and diṭṭhicarita. But taṇha and māna may be included in rāga, and diṭṭhi in moha. The Vsm says that rāgacarita is like saddācarita, dosacarita like buddhicarita and mohacarita like vittakkacarita. For details, see Vsm, p. 101 foll.
Цитата:
1. What is the classification according to their character (caritaprabheda)?
It is sevenfold:
   (i) dominated by desire (rāgacarita),
   (ii) dominated by hatred (dveṣacarita),
   (iii) dominated by ignorance (mohacarita),
   (iv) dominated by pride (mānacarita),
   (v) dominated by distraction (vitarkacarita),405
   (vi) normal character (balanced) (samabhāgacarita) and
   (vii) slightly passionate character (mandarajaskacarita).
Цитата:
THREE PERSONS IN RELATION TO THEIR CHARACTER
   1) What is the person whose character is dominated by (i) desire (rāgacarita)? It is the person in whom desire is intense and widespread (tīvrāyatarāga). It is the same for persons whose characters are dominated by (ii) hatred (dveṣa), (iii) ignorance (moha), (iv) pride (māna) or (v) distraction (vitarka).
   2) What is the person whose character is normal or balanced (samabhāgacarita)?
   It is the one in whom the defilements are normal, balanced, natural (prakṛtisthakleśa).
   3) What is the person whose character is slightly passionate (mandarajaskacarita)?
   It is the one whose defilements are naturally tiny (tanutarakleśa).
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