№9838Добавлено: Чт 19 Янв 06, 19:42 (12 лет тому назад)Трисвабхава в Махаянасамграхе Асанги
Два перевода на английский второй главы Компендиума Махаяны (Mahayanasamgraha, Mahayana samparigraha-sastra, кит. She dasheng lun 攝大乘論, Махаянасамграха) ачарьи Асанги (Asanga), в которой как раз излагается учение о трёх природах (трисвабхаве). На русский эта глава нигде пока не переведена. Вообще раньше встречал только перевод начала первой главы этого текста, посвященной алаявиджняне, выполненный Е. А. Торчиновым [link].
1. Keenan, John, trans. The Summary of the Great Vehicle. Berkeley: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, 1992. ISBN: 096256186X. Pages: 147. Перевод с китайского перевода Парамартхи (Paramārtha 眞諦) (T 1593.31, [кит. текст]).
2. ASANGA, Mahayanasamgraha. Summarized by Stefan Anacker. Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies. Volume 8: Buddhist Philosophy from 100 to 350 A.D. (Ed. K.H.Potter) (Delhi 1999), pp 459-476. Скорей всего выполнен с французкого перевода Ламотта (E. Lamotte, 1938) китайского перевода Сюань-цзана (Hsuan-Tsang 玄奘) (T 1594.31, кит. текст]).
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№9841Добавлено: Чт 19 Янв 06, 20:53 (12 лет тому назад)
Chapter II. The Distinguishing Characteristics of the Knowable
the three patterns of other-dependence, imagination, and reality explained as the characteristic patterns of the knowable
CHAPTER TWO. The characteristic marks of what can be known
the characteristics of what can be known are the three essential natures
We have now explained the support of the knowable. What then are the distinguishing characteristics of the knowable? In sum they are three: the other-dependent pattern, the imagined pattern, and the reality pattern.
(T87) The characteristic marks of what can be known are the dependent characteristic (paratantralaksana), the mental constructed characteristic (parikalpita-laksana), and the perfected characteristic (parinspannalaksana)
The other-dependent pattern consists of all the consciously constructed differentiations that have the foundation consciousness as their seed and that are included within unreal imagining. These differentiations are the conscious construction of the body, the conscious construction of the embodied person, the conscious construction of the experiencing person, the conscious construction of the content experienced, the conscious construction of valid experiencing, the conscious construction of time, the conscious construction of number, the conscious construction of place, the conscious construction of language, the conscious construction of a difference between oneself and others, and the conscious construction of being born and dying in good and evil destinies.
The conscious construction of the body, the embodied, and the experiencer, the experienced content, valid experiencing, time, number, place, and language are all engendered from the seminal permeation of language. The conscious construction of the difference between oneself and others is engendered from the seminal permeation of belief in self. The conscious construction of being born and dying in good and evil destinies is engendered from the seminal permeation of the factors of existence. It is because such conscious constructions are the salient features of other-dependence, found in the defilements of all worlds and destinies, that unreal imagining becomes manifested. These conscious constructs are comprised in unreal imagining, for they exist only as conscious constructs. The other-dependent pattern is the support whereby these nonexistent, unreal objects appear.
(T7-89) The dependent is all the perceptual manifestations which have as their seed the storehouse consciousness: they include the perceptions of a body ( = the five sense-organs), of a possessor of the body ( = the defiled mind), of an enjoyer (the mental consciousness), all perception of number, the perception of locus, the perceptions which come through practical usage, the perception of a distinction between "self" and "others", and the perception of good and bad destinies, birth, and death. The first nine of these are the result of traces of verbal activity, the tenth is the result of traces of a view of a self, and the eleventh is the result of traces of all the constituent parts of existing. Cf. I, 58-59.
The imagined pattern is the appearance of nonexistent objects, which are only conscious constructs, as real.
(T90) The mentally constructed is the appearance of an object when there is no object, but only perception.
The reality pattern is the eternal nonexistence in the other-dependent pattern of such objects and objective properties, for they have no existent reality.
(T90-91) The perfected is the absence of any characteristic of an object in the dependent.
The conscious constructs of the body, the embodied, and the experiencer correspond to the six internal spheres of the sense organs. The conscious constructs that are the content of experience correspond to the six external sense spheres of perceptible objects. The conscious construction of valid experience corresponds to the six sense consciousnesses. The remaining conscious constructs are differentiations of these basic constructs.
(T92) Arrangement of the elements in II.2 as the internal sensory domains, the external sensory domains, and their corresponding consciousnesses.
Thus all conscious objects are only constructs of consciousness because there are no external objects. They are like a dream. In a dream everything is only a conscious construct without any relationship to any external object. All the objects that appear as real therein, such as the various material forms, voices, odors, tastes, touches, villas, gardens, lands, mountains, etc., have no real objective being whatsoever. This example shows how in all cases there is only conscious construction. The term "etc." above indicates other examples, such as magic tricks, mirages, optical illusions, and so forth.
Objection: You say that in all cases those things that are seen by a person who is awake are only conscious constructions like objects in a dream. But when a person awakens from a dream, he recognizes that the dreamed objects are only constructs of consciousness. Why then does one not similarly awaken from [the illusion of objectivity]?
Answer: It is similar, for a person who has attained a wisdom awakening to suchness does not lack such an understanding. Just as a person yet dreaming does not wake up as long as he remains dreaming, but a person already awakened does have this awareness. So one who has not yet attained an awakened wisdom to suchness lacks this awakening, but one who has already attained a wisdom awakening to suchness certainly has this awareness.
(T92-93) Objection: Is there ever to be found a perception without a corresponding object?
Answer: Certainly, as in a dream.
Objection: But at emergence from a dream, it is recognized that the dream-perceptions had no corresponding objects. This, however, is not the case with other perceptions.
Answer: Yes it is, because those who are awakened by the knowledge of reality realize that all their perceptions are without a corresponding object.
If one has not yet awakened to suchness in wisdom in regard to conscious construction only, then how can he infer this understanding? He can do so by reflecting upon the scriptures and by true reasoning. In scriptures such as the Scripture on the Ten States (T. No. 287) the World-Honored Buddha taught, "Buddha sons, the three worlds are mind only." And in the Scripture on the Explication of Underlying Meaning the great bodhisattva Maitreya asked the World-Honored Buddha, "World-Honored One, are these images of things, which are the objects of the concentrated mind, different from mind or identical with mind?" The World-Honored Buddha answered, "Maitreya, they are not different from mind, because I have taught that they are only conscious constructs. These images and objects of perceptible form are the appearances of conscious construction." Maitreya Bodhisattva then asked, "World-Honored One, if these images of perceptible forms that are the content of the concentrated mind are not different from that concentrated mind, how can that consciousness apprehend those constructs as its objects?" The World-Honored Buddha responded, "There is nothing that apprehends anything, yet although it cannot apprehend them, as the developments of this consciousness arise they appear in the guise [of those objects]. It is just as one sees on a mirror surface an image that appears to be different from that surface, while in fact he sees [only] the surface. In like fashion, that which appears in the concentrated mind seems to be objectively real, i.e., to differ from the concentrated mind [but in fact it is only a construct of that mind]."
By reasoning upon this scripture we can clarify the meaning of conscious construction only. How so? When the mind of a practitioner of meditation is already in the meditations of totality, he enters into a totality of color-image, as when he sees blue or yellow, but this mind does not itself see these material forms of blue or yellow as external objects. From this reasoning a bodhisattva can infer the meaning of conscious construction in regard to all consciousnesses.
(T93 96) Question: How can those who are not yet awakened in that sense know the existence of manifesting only?
Answer: By scriptural authority, and by reasoning. In the83.Dasabhumikasutra the Buddha has said that the triple world (i.e., the sphere of desire, the material sphere, and the immaterial sphere) is nothing but awareness. (Quotes further the 136.Samdhinirmocanasutra) And by reasoning one can determine that the blue sense objects seen in meditation do not correspond to an external object, but are consciousness-only.
The conscious construction of blue or yellow is not consciousness of memory, because the object seen is immediately present. In the mental consciousness of remembering what has been heard or reflected upon, consciousness has as its object things past, which arise as past. Therefore [this case of the concentrated mind] does demonstrate the meaning of conscious construction only. From this inference a bodhisattva, even if he has not yet attained a wisdom awakening to suchness, can infer the meaning of conscious construction only.
(T96-97) Furthermore, one may have perceptions in the form of memories of things long past--since those things no longer exist, it is clear that this is also consciousness only .
Objection: We grant that among the various conscious constructs explained above to be like magic tricks or dreams, those of the visual consciousness, etc., are only conscious constructs. But how can this interpretation of conscious construction apply to material forms grasped by eye consciousness?
Answer: As stated above, it can be understood both from scripture and from reasoning that these also are conscious constructs only.
Objection: If material forms are conscious constructs, then how do they appear as material? How do they perdure in solid homogeneity?
Answer: They do so because they are supported by the defilements, such as inverted thinking, etc. If this were not so, the inversion of taking as an object what is not an object would not occur. And if these two obstacles did not occur, then states of purification would not occur. Therefore, all conscious constructs are engendered in such fashion that they can be believed to be real. We present a verse:
The cause of confusion and confusion itself are
Constructs of material form and immaterial form.
If the first conscious construct did not exist,
The second conscious construct would not arise.
(T97-98) Objection: This may be so for mental phenomena, but how can you say that the sensory domains of visibles, etc., and of the eye, etc., are nothing but perceptions?
Answer: By scriptural authority and by reasoning, as above.
Objection: But these domains form series which are clearly material.
Answer: It is this appearance of material series without there being really a material series which makes possible the perversion of considering the nonexistent existent. (Quotes 165.Mahayanasutralamkara XI.24 as if a work by a different author.)
Why do the conscious constructs of the body, the embodied person, the experiencer, the content of experience, and valid experiencing come about in synergy and unison in all places of rebirth? Because they reach their term precisely in the experience of rebirth.
Why do the conscious constructs of time and the other differentiations treated above come about? Because the beginningless continuity of dying and being reborn is uninterrupted [time arises]. Because the realm of sentient beings is incalculable [number arises]. Because the environmental world is unlimited [place arises]. Because the mutual communication of affairs is unlimited [language arises]. Because the differentiations in appropriations and experiences are unlimited [differentiations between self and others arise]. Because the maturations of actions, whether experienced as agreeable or disagreeable, are unlimited and because the differences in dying and being born thus realized are unlimited [good and evil, their destinies, and the factors of existence arise].
What valid arguments establish these other conscious constructs [i.e., the last six] as conscious constructs only? In sum there are three approaches: (1) since all constructs have been shown to be only conscious constructs, then the only criterion is conscious construction, for external objects have no existence; (2) there are only two components in conscious construction, i.e., image and insight; and (3) because the images variously produced are included in conscious construction.
What does this mean? Because all consciousnesses have no objects, we validate conscious construction only as endowed with image and insight, for all sense consciousnesses have material form as their image and the sense consciousnesses as their insight, while the thinking consciousness has all the conscious constructs of sense perception as its image and thinking consciousness as its insight.
How can this be? Because the thinking consciousness is able to imagine and appear discriminately in the guise of all these conscious constructs. We present a verse:
When practitioners of meditation who understand The single criterion,
Its two components, and their varieties
Reach an understanding of
Conscious construction only,
They eradicate the standpoint of consciousness.
(T99-101) Consciousness-only can be considered in three aspects: as unitary, in being consciousness only; as dual, in being endowed with the appearances of perception and perceiver; as infinitely varied, because of the appearance of innumerable aspects.
Some teachers say that, since in its arising the thinking consciousness takes different supports, it is referred to under different names, just as acts of volition are referred to as physical acts, vocal acts, etc. [inasmuch as they depend on the body, the voice, etc.]. In all its various configurations engendered by its supports it appears as dual: as an external object and as the discrimination [of that object]. In all realms it appears as contact, but in form realms, this thinking consciousness arises only in dependence on the support of the body. It is analogous to the material senses, which are also supported by the body. We present a verse:
Those who have journeyed far and have journeyed alone,
Bodiless and abiding in the cave of emptiness,
Who have suppressed that which is difficult to suppress-
They are liberated from the bondage of enmity.
As a scripture says:
The thinking consciousness apprehends each of the objects of the five senses, for this thinking consciousness in its discrimination is their cause.
A further passage also says:
When we describe discrimination,
Among the twelve spheres [of sensation],
The group of the six sense consciousnesses
Is termed the thinking sphere.
(T101-103) Certain people believe that the first five consciousnesses do not exist, and that it is only the mental consciousness which takes these different aspects according to the sensory organ it is associated with. But the mental consciousness is never anything but a perception of a kind special to "itself"--it always has a double aspect: the appearance of an object only and the appearance of a conceptual construction. The perception of sensory organs is however different from this, since sensory characteristics are perceived.
When we here propose the foundational consciousness as the conscious constructor of objects, one must understand that herein all conscious constructs are termed the conscious construction of its image component, while the thinking consciousness and its supporting sense consciousnesses must be termed its conscious construction of the insight component. Why? Because conscious constructions of images are the supports that engender the activity of insight, since, being the cause for the occurrence of insight, they appear as external objects. This is how we establish that all conscious constructs are conscious construction only.
(T103) All other perceptions are the perceptions of signs of the storehouse consciousness. The perception of a mental consciousness forms its perception of observation, which in turn makes the appearances of objects arise.
How is it that, even though external objects appear before our eyes and are known, they do not exist? It is as the World-Honored Buddha has taught, "When a bodhisattva attains the four understandings, he is able to comprehend and understand that all conscious constructs are without external object." What are these four? They are (1) the understanding that [the same object can] be the cause of contradictory conscious constructs, as when hungry ghosts, animals, and humans see different things in regard to the same object; (2) [the understanding that] conscious construction can occur from seeing what is not objective, as happens in regard to the past, the future, dreams, and fantasies; (3) understanding perfected spontaneously and unerringly, for, if an encounter with really existent objects produced conscious constructs, then there would be no point in any spontaneous and unerring understanding, since one would know them just as they are; and (4) the understanding that objects conform to the three wisdoms. What three wisdoms? They are (1) when wise persons enter concentration, they attain mastery over their minds, for at will they are masterful, and objects variously appear as intended; (2) when practitioners of concentration have attained quietude and turn their effort toward an examination of doctrine, objects appear in accord with their thought; and (3) when such persons have attained non-imaginative wisdom and have not emerged from non-imaginative concentration, no external objects appear at all. Because all objects conform to these three wisdoms and because of the above-cited reasons for conscious construction only, we conclude that only conscious construction exists and that external objects do not.
There are six verses that reiterate the above interpretation. Because these verses appear later in the chapter on wisdom training, they will be treated extensively there. They begin with the phrase, "Hungry ghosts, animals, men..." [Chap. VIII, No. 20].
(Chap. VIII.) 20. The following stanzas treat non-imaginative wisdom:
Hungry ghosts, animals, men,
All gods—each have their own
Different ideas about a single object,
Concluding that the object [they conceptualize] is valid.
As, in regard to the past and the future,
And to dreams and double images,
Knowledge objectifies things without any existent object,
So objects are posited, even though they do not occur.
If external things became objects of understanding,
There would be no non-imaginative wisdom.
If this [wisdom] did not exist,
Then the attainment of Buddhahood would also be impossible.
Bodhisattvas who have attained mastery
Because of the power of their commitment
Create lands at will,
As do those in concentration.
Those perfected in investigation,
Those with wisdom and concentration [understand that]
All things appear as objects
Within their own minds.
When non-imaginative wisdom is cultivated,
No object appears.
Know then that no external object exists,
And thus there is no conscious construction either.
(T104-107) In regard to the same "object"-moment, different beings may have totally different perceptions. This demonstrates in itself that there is no objective" object. Furthermore, the knowledge of Buddhas is a knowledge without objects--this again would be impossible if an "object" were something real.
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№9842Добавлено: Чт 19 Янв 06, 21:39 (12 лет тому назад)
If the support whereby what is only a conscious construction appears as an external object is termed the other-dependent pattern, how [in the absence of an external object as other] does it come to be dependent on others? Why is it said to be other-dependent? Because, arising from its own seminal permeation, it is interwoven with causes and cannot be independent [it is dependent on others]. Because it does not arise spontaneously and cannot even for an instant be independent, it is termed other-dependent.
If the imagined pattern is the other-dependent appearance of external objects as real, when they really do not exist, then how does it come to be imagined? Why is it termed imagined? Because the discriminations of thinking consciousness in unlimited ways cause error, it comes to be imagined. Because it has no specific character of its own, but is only the seeing of imagined distinctions, it is termed imagined.
If the reality pattern is characterized as the eternal absence of the imagined pattern, how does it come to be reality? Why is it termed reality? Because suchness is never not suchness, it is reality. Because it perfectly purifies all realms and is the highest of all good states in the fullness of ultimate meaning, it is termed reality.
(T107-108) If the dependent is consciousness only, in what sense is it dependent' Because it arises from its own traces (seeds), it is dependent on conditions. And because, after it arises, it is unable to exist by itself even for a moment, it is dependent.
If the constructed is simply the appearance of a nonobject as object, in which way is it constructed? Because it lies at the origin of all the constructions of the mental consciousness, it is called constructed.
If the perfected is the total absence of the constructed in the dependent, why is it called perfected? Because it is the object of a totally purified awareness, and the best of all good factors.
The imagined pattern is constituted by the presence of the act of imagining and something imagined. Here what state is referred to as imagining? What is that which is imagined? What is referred to as the imagined pattern?
Imagining is [the activity of] thinking consciousness, endowed with three kinds of imagining [of essences, shapes, and memories]. This consciousness [first as the imagining of essences and shapes] arises because its seeds are its own language permeations and the language permeations of all the sense consciousnesses. Because of its unlimited imagining in all places, it is termed the imagining [of memories]. That which is other-dependent is what is imagined. The imagined pattern refers to the basic activity of taking the other-dependent pattern as the content of imagining.
Why is this imagining able to fantasize upon the other-dependent pattern the images of the ten thousand things? What object does it encounter? Why does it apprehend these picture images? How does it see them and how does it dependently arise? How does it express itself in language and how does it increase? It names all its objects in the other-dependent pattern; it grasps images; it engenders seeing in judgmental categories; its intelligence dependently arises as presented in language; its four kinds of language about what is seen, etc., affirm that which is actually without being to be existent and fantasize that which does exist to be nonexistent. Such is its activity of imagining.
(T108-110) Construction is mental consciousness. The constructible is however the dependent. And the constructed nature is the aspect into which the dependent is constructed by the mental consciousness.
Are these three patterns different from each other or identical with each other? They are neither different nor identical. One must explain them as [neither different nor identical]. In one specific sense, the other-dependent pattern is dependent on others. In another sense it becomes imagined and in yet another specific sense it becomes reality.
In what sense is it termed other-dependent? In that it is bound to the other in its issuance from seminal permeation. In what sense does it become imagined? In that the other-dependent pattern is both the cause for imagining and that which is imagined. In what sense does it become reality? In that this other-dependent pattern, when it becomes reality, does not really exist as it was imagined.
Furthermore in what sense does this one [other-dependent] consciousness take on all the various configurations of consciousness? In that the conscious constructs that arise by virtue of both the fundamental consciousness and the other consciousnesses have these various configurations, and in that [these consciousnesses] arise because of those configurations.
(T110) The three essential natures (dependent, constructed, perfected) are neither different nor identical. The dependent, for instance, is dependent from one point of view, constructed from another (as in this treatise!), and perfected from yet another. It is dependent in the sense that it depends upon another thing to arise--and that other thing depends upon it to arise. It is constructed as soon as it is a sign of a mental construction. It is perfected in the sense that it does not really exist at all in the way it is mentally constructed.
How many varieties of the other-dependent pattern are there? In sum there are two. The first is that which occurs in tandem with seminal permeation, while the second is that which is unformed in regard to purification or defilement. Thus we speak of other-dependence in virtue of these two mutual relationships.
The imagined pattern is also of two varieties. The first is the imagining of essences, while the second is the imagining of specific qualities.
The reality pattern is also of two varieties. The first is essential perfection, while the second is purified perfection.
Furthermore imagination is also of four varieties. The first is the imagining of essences and the second is the imagining of specific qualities, while the third is that of intelligent persons and the fourth that of unintelligent persons. The intelligent are those persons who engender imagination from their ability to understand and differentiate names and words. The unintelligent are those who engender imagination with no such ability.
Moreover in yet another schema there are five varieties of imagination. The first is to imagine an essence in objects because of their names, as when one sees names as themselves implying objects. The second is to imagine an essence in names because of their objects, as when one takes objects to be intrinsic to names. The third is to imagine an essence in names because of those names, as when one imagines a name for a yet unknown object. The fourth is to imagine an essence in objects because of those objects, as when one imagines an object for a yet unknown name. The fifth is to imagine an essence in both names and objects because of both, as when one identifies names with objects and objects with names.
Or one can summarize all imaginings in ten varieties. The first is fundamental imagining, that is, the foundational consciousness. The second is imagining images, that is, the conscious constructs of perceptible forms. The third is imagining because of the appearing [of those images], that is, all the conscious constructs of the sense consciousnesses, together with their supporting [images]. The fourth is imagining changes in those images, that is, the changes of old age and so forth, the changes of sensations of pain and pleasure, of lust and delusion, of oppressive times, or the changes of being reborn in the hells or in the realm of desire. The fifth is imagining changes because of the appearing [of those images], that is, the arising of the changes described above. The sixth is imagining that is elicited by others, that is, the imagining that comes from hearing either false or true doctrine. The seventh is incorrect imagining, that is, the imagining of false doctrine of those outside the true doctrine. The eighth is correct imagining, that is, the imagining that comes from hearing the true doctrine of those within the true doctrine. The ninth is imagining that clings to its judgments, that is, the imaginings that arise in tandem with the sixty-two views that are based on belief in selfhood in all its varieties of incorrect reflection. The tenth is distracted imagining, that is, the ten kinds of imaginings of bodhisattvas.
(T112-115) Ten kinds of mental construction may arise:
(1) the root construction, i.e., the store-consciousness;
(2) the construction of signs this is the construction of the perceptions of visibles, etc.;
(3) the construction of the appearance of a sign, i.e., the notions of "visual consciousness", etc.;
(4) the construction which entails a modification of the "object"--as those resulting from old age, from a pleasurable sensation, a difference of time of year, etc.;
(5) the construction which is a modification of that which appears as an object, for instance, the modifications of perceptions brought about by previous perceptions;
(6) construction which depends upon something other, i.e., the constructions following upon hearing something which is not the dharma, and the constructions following upon hearing the dharma;
(7) construction based on carelessness, e.g., the opinions of chose completely removed from the Buddhist dharma;
(8) construction based on carefulness, e.g., the preliminary views of those following the dharma;
(9) constructions following from adherence to false views;
(10) constructions of distractions in the Bodhisattva path.
The first of these ten distractions of bodhisattvas is distraction through an image of nonbeing. The second is distraction through an image of being. The third is distraction through imputing being to what is not. The fourth is distraction through negating being to what is. The fifth is distraction through clinging to unity. The sixth is distraction through clinging to differentiation. The seventh is distraction about totality. The eighth is distraction about specific qualities. The ninth is distraction that takes objects to correspond to names. The tenth is distraction that takes names to correspond to objects.
(T115) The constructions of distractions in the Bodhisattva-path are: distraction as "nonbeing", distractions of "being", distractions on superimposition, distractions on denial, distractions on identities, distractions on differentiations, distractions on essential nature, distractions on specification, distractions involving interpreting an object according to its conventional name, distractions involving interpreting a name according to its "object".
In order to counter these ten kinds of distracting imaginings, the World-Honored One has taught in all the Perfection of Wisdom teachings that non-imaginative wisdom is able to counter these ten distractions. Thus one should recognize that the full significance of the Perfection of Wisdom scriptures lies in how the bodhisattva is to practice these perfections of wisdom in accord with the explanation of those scriptures. They teach, "Sariputra, a bodhisattva is indeed a bodhisattva" [in order to counter the image of nonbeing]. They teach, "One does not see an existent bodhisattva" [in order to counter the image of being]. They teach, "One does not see the name bodhisattva, the perfection of wisdom, practice or the absence of practice, perceptible form, sensation, conceptualization, volitional dispositions, or consciousness, for the essence of form is empty" [in order to counter the imputation of being to what is not]. They teach, "They are not empty because of that emptiness" [in order to counter the negation of that which is]. They teach, "That emptiness within perceptible forms is not identical with those forms" [in order to counter the clinging to unity]. They teach, "No form is differentiated from emptiness" [in order to counter clinging to differentiation] for "form is emptiness and emptiness is form." They teach, "This is because, Sariputra, these are only names" [in order to counter the distraction about totality]. They teach, "That which is referred to as the essence of form 120b neither arises nor passes away and is neither defiled nor purified [in order to counter distractions about specific qualities]. They teach, "It is through artificially established names that one imagines all beings" [in order to counter the mistaken correspondence between objects and names]; that "Things are as they are because they follow upon language, which artificially establishes their incidental names" and "People engender sundry attachments because of such language constructs" [in order to counter the mistaken correspondence between names and objects]. They teach, "Of such names none are seen by the bodhisattva, who consequently engenders no attachment," for if he should take note of the aggregates, he would also elicit this reflection.
From these passages from the Perfection of Wisdom scriptures one should accordingly reflect upon the meaning of the ten distractions.
(T115-118) The antidotes to these ten are found in 5.Astasahasrikaprajna-paramita XI.77."The Bodhisattva, being really a Bodhisattva": this is the antidote to the distraction on "nonbeing". "Does not perceive a Bodhisattva": this is the antidote to the distraction of being. "Does not conceive of the name 'Bodhisattva', nor of any of the aggregates, etc.": this is the antidote to superimposition. "All this does not exist because of emptiness": this is the antidote to denial. "The emptiness of materiality is not materiality": this is the antidote to identity. "Outside of emptiness, there is no materiality": this is the antidote to differentiation. "Materiality is nothing but a name": this is the antidote to essential nature. "There is neither birth, nor cessation, nor defilement, nor purification": this is the antidote to specifications. Names are artificial": this is the antidote to distractions involving interpreting according to names. "The Bodhisattva conceives of no names": this is the antidote to distractions involving interpreting a name according to an "object".
As an antidote to these ten distractions, the knowledge free from conceptual construction is taught in all the Prajnaparamitasutras.
If in this sense the other-dependent pattern comes to be in all three patterns, then how can there be three patterns? How can these three different patterns not become commingled? There is no commingling because of the principle that, when this pattern becomes other-dependent, it does not thereby become either imagined or reality; that when it becomes imagined, it does not thereby become other-dependent or reality; and that when it becomes reality, it does not thereby become either other-dependent or imagined.
(T118) All of the three essential natures are really included in the dependent. If this is so, why aren't the three identical? Inasmuch as it is really dependent, the dependent is not simply mentally constructed, and it is not perfected, either. Inasmuch as it is mentally constructed it isn't really dependent or perfected. Inasmuch as it is perfected, it isn't dependent and isn't constructed.
But how does one know that when the other-dependent pattern appears as the imagined pattern, it is not identical with that imagined pattern? Because it is contradictory that any substance to things be intrinsic to its name, since prior to the acquisition of names, no understanding arises in regard to objects, and many names would indicate many objects, but this is contradictory. It is also contradictory that, since names are undetermined, objects should also be disunified substances. We present verses on this:
There is no understanding prior to naming;
Names are many and indeterminate.
It is contradictory for objects to be
Identical with substances, to be many, or to be disunified.
The nonbeing of beings appears as being.
The undefiled yet becomes purified.
Thus it is like a magic trick,
Like the empty sky.
(T118-119) How can one know that the dependent which manifests itself as constructed is not really identical with the constructed? Before there is a name, a notion also doesn't exist.504 (Quotes 165.Mahayanasutralamkara XIII.16 as if a work by another author.)
Since the other-dependent pattern does not really exist as it appears, how does one know that it is not entirely nonexistent? If there were no other-dependent pattern, then the reality pattern would also be nonexistent, and one would then come to affirm universal nothingness. And then, if the other-dependent pattern and the reality pattern both did not exist, one would fall into error about the being and nonbeing of defilement and purification. But since these states can be known not to be nothing, it is not true that all is nothing. We present a verse:
If there is no other-dependent pattern,
Then the reality pattern also does not exist.
Then there could never be the two states
Of defilement and purification.
(T120) If the dependent does not exist as it appears, why isn't it entirely nonexistent? Without the dependent, the perfected cannot exist. And if the dependent and the perfected did not exist, there could be neither defilement nor purification.
All the World-Honored Buddhas have preached the broad scriptures of the Great Vehicle, wherein it is asked: How should one understand the imagined pattern? It should be understood through the teaching that such states do not exist.
How should one understand the other-dependent pattern? It should be understood through the teaching on such similes as a magic trick, a mirage, a dream trace, a shadow, a reflection, a valley echo, the moon in water, a transformation.
How should one understand the reality pattern? It should be understood through the teaching on the four kinds of pure states. These are (1) original, essential purity, that is, suchness, emptiness, the reality-limit, the imageless, reality, the reality-realm; (2) undefiled purity, that is, the above state separated from all adventitious obstacles; (3) the purity of the path whereby one reaches that [undefiled purity], that is, all the factors favorable to awakening, all the perfections, etc.; and (4) the purity of the object that engenders that path, that is, the truly enunciated doctrine of the Great Vehicle. Why? Because this preaching is the cause for purification, it is not imagined. Because it is an outflow from the pure reality-realm, it is not other-dependent. These four pure states encompass all pure states without exception. We present a verse:
Such similes as magic refer to the other-dependent.
The teaching of nonbeing refers to the imagined.
The teaching of the four purities treats reality.
These purities are the origin, the undefiled,
The path, and the object.
All pure states are encompassed in these four.
(T120-122)505 It is the mentally constructed which is really nonexistent. The dependent, on the other hand, is like a magic show, a mirage, a dream, a reflection, a flash, an echo, the moon in the water, a transformation, i.e., it is not existent as it appears, but it is not nonexistent. The perfected, finally, is emptiness, the ultimate purification, the factors conducive to enlightenment, and the teaching of the Mahayana.
Why and wherefore is the other-dependent pattern explained in the scriptures through similes such as the magic trick, etc.? In order to eliminate the delusions and doubts of others about the other-dependent pattern.
How can these others be shown that their doubts about the other-dependent pattern are unjustified? In order to resolve the doubts of those who say, "If there really are no things, then how can one validate the objective world?" it is taught that it is like a magic trick.
In order to resolve the doubts of those who say, "If there really are no objects, then how can the mind and its activities arise?" it is taught that it is like a mirage.
In order to resolve the doubts of those who say, "If there really are no external things, then how can one experience pleasure or pain?" it is taught that it is like a dream trace.
In order to resolve the doubts of those who say, "If there really are no beings, how can good or evil actions produce pleasant or unpleasant results?" it is taught that it is like a shadow.
In order to resolve the doubts of those who say, "If there really are no beings, then how do the various understandings arise?" it is taught that it is like a reflection.
In order to resolve the doubts of those who say, "If there really are no beings, then how can language arise?" it is taught that it is like a valley echo.
In order to resolve the doubts of those who say, "If there really are no beings, then how can one actually encounter real beings as objects of the concentrated mind?" it is taught that it is like the moon in water.
In order to resolve the doubts of those who say, "If there really are no beings, then how could bodhisattvas resolve unerringly to experience birth in the six destinies to benefit others?" it is taught that it is like a transformation.
(T122-124) The images used in relation to the interdependent answer questions such as the following: How can the nonexistent be perceived?
With what intention did the World-Honored One say in the Scripture of Brahma's Questions that a Tathagata sees neither the birth-death cycle nor cessation? His underlying intention was to teach the undifferentiation whereby the birth-death cycle is cessation because they are grounded within the other-dependent pattern [respectively] as the imagined and reality patterns. This is because the other-dependent pattern in its imagined aspect becomes the birth-death cycle and in its reality aspect becomes cessation.
(T124-125) Why did the Buddha say in the Brahmapariprcchasutra that he sees neither samsara nor nirvana?Because the dependent is constructed sometimes and perfected sometimes. The Buddha had in mind the nondifferentiation of samsara and nirvana. The dependent in its constructed aspect = samsara; the dependent in its perfected aspect — nirvana.
In the Abhidharma Scripture, the World-Honored One taught three aspects: (1) the defiled aspect, (2) the pure aspect, and (3) the defiled and pure aspect. What was his intention in teaching these three aspects? While the defiled aspect is the imagined pattern within the other-dependent pattern, and the pure aspect is the reality pattern within the other-dependent pattern, the defiled and pure aspect is the other-dependent pattern itself. This was his intention in teaching these three aspects.
What analogies can be offered for his intention? It is like a lump of gold with three aspects: elemental earth, gold, and a lump of soil. In the elemental earth, a lump of soil is visible, although it does not exist [for it is really gold], while the gold, which does really exist, is not visible. But when the lump of soil is heated in the furnace, then the previously invisible gold appears. When the lump of soil appeared as the elemental earth, this was an illusory appearance. But when the gold appears, this is the appearance of reality. Thus the elemental earth has two aspects.
In a similar way, when the fundamental consciousness has not yet been heated in the furnace of non-imaginative wisdom, this consciousness appears as the unreal, imagined pattern, and the reality pattern does not appear. But when it is heated in the furnace of non-imaginative wisdom, this consciousness appears as the perfected, reality pattern, and the unreal, imagined pattern does not appear.
Therefore the consciousness of unreal imagination, that is, the other-dependent pattern, has two aspects. It is like the primal matter that contains gold covered over by dirt.
(T125-126) The constructed in the dependent is defiled. The perfected in the dependent is purified. Thus the dependent itself can be either defiled or purified.
Furthermore in certain passages the World-Honored One taught that all things are eternal; in other passages, that all things are transient; and in yet other passages, that they are neither eternal nor transient. This was his intention in teaching the eternal, transient, and neither eternal nor transient natures of all things.
This same interpretation holds for suffering, pleasure, and the absence of either; for good, evil, and the absence of either; for emptiness, nonemptiness, and the absence of either; for self, non-self, and the absence of either; for quiescence, non-quiescence, and the absence of either; for essence, non-essence, and the absence of either; for arising, non-arising, and the absence of either; for passing away, no passing away, and the absence of either; for original quiescence, no original quiescence, and the absence of either; for original cessation, no original cessation, and the absence of either; for the birth-death cycle, cessation, and the absence of either.
One should interpret the underlying intent of all the distinctions taught by all Buddha Tathagatas by following the structure of the three patterns as above. We present verses:
As things have no reality,
And as they appear in various ways,
He explained their non-duality
As neither reality nor unreality.
From a single perspective he taught
Either being or nonbeing;
From a double perspective he taught
Neither being nor nonbeing.
Beings are not as they appear;
Thus he taught their eternal nonbeing.
But beings actually do exist in their appearances;
Thus he taught their absence of nonbeing.
Because substances do not of themselves exist,
Because substances do not of themselves perdure,
Because they do not exist as apprehended,
The three patterns validate the three absences of essence.
Because of non-essences,
One establishes their momentary basis,
Their original quiescence as neither arising nor passing away,
And their original cessation.
(T126-129) Question: The Buddha has said in the 133.Lankavatarasutra that all factors are eternal. But since factors are momentary, how could he say this? Answer: The dependent in its perfected aspect is eternal; the dependent in its constructed aspect is momentary The same formula holds for other dualities: joy/frustration, welfare/lack of welfare, calm/noncalm, etc. Since factors are nonexistent and they arise in various ways (for example, the same sound-moment will appear different to each aggregate-complex in contact with it), there is neither a factor nor a non-factor. In a way they exist, in another they don't exist. (Quotes 165.Mahayanasutralamkara XI.50-51 as if a work by a different author.)
Furthermore, the teachings of all World-Honored Buddhas should be interpreted according to their four intentions and four aims.
The four intentions are (1) the intention to make an identification, as for example when it is taught that "At that time I was called Vipasyin, who had attained Buddhahood"; (2) the intention to declare a future event, as for example when it is taught that "If a person recites and bears in mind the name of Bahuratna Buddha, he is assured of attaining supreme awakening without ever again falling back," or when it is taught that "Only those who have elicited the vow to be born in the Buddha Land of Bliss will be born there"; (3) the intention of indirect reference, as for example when it is taught that "One can attain a full comprehension of the Great Vehicle by serving Buddhas as numerous as the sands of the Ganges"; and (4) the intention to accord with the dispositions of sentient beings, as for example when the Tathagata first effusively praised the charity of a certain person and then afterward severely censured it [in another person]. As with charity, the same applies to discipline and the other perfections. These are termed the four intentions.
The four aims are (1) the aim of causing one to enter, as when in the great or lesser vehicles the World-Honored Buddha taught the conventional truths that identify the general and specific characteristics of persons and things; (2) the aim of disclosing patterns, as when he taught that the three patterns necessarily exist in the teaching on the specific nature of things; (3) the aim of countering, as when the practices that counter the eighty-four thousand passionate actions of sentient beings are clarified; and (4) the aim of interpreting, as when a meaning different from the literal sense is expressed in order to elucidate a different meaning. An example of this is found in the following verse: "Those who take the unsubstantial for the substantial, who are well established in error, who are afflicted by all the passions—they attain supreme awakening."
If one desires to interpret the overall doctrine of the Great Vehicle in summary, he should treat the three themes: (1) he should elucidate the character of dependent co-arising, (2) he should elucidate the true character of dependently co-arisen states of being, and (3) he should elucidate the meaning of what has been taught [in the scriptures in the light of the above two].
The elucidation of the character of dependent co-arising is as the verse declares, "All things arise from the permeations of language and these [permeations] from those [things]," i.e., the maturing consciousness and the actively evolving consciousnesses are causes one of the other.
The elucidation of the true character of dependently co-arisen states of being means that the nature of all things, being characterized as active evolutions of consciousness, is conscious construction endowed with image and insight. Furthermore all states of being are characterized as support, imagined, and reality. In these words the nature of all states of being is elucidated within the context of the three patterns. We present a verse:
Issuing from that which has both image and insight,
One knows that all states of being have the three patterns.
How can one elucidate the characters of these states? Within the other-dependent pattern, the imagined pattern lacks any reality whereby it might exist, but the true reality pattern really does exist therein. It is in virtue of this nonbeing and this being that at the same time spontaneously perfected suchness is realized or not, seen already or not yet seen. For in the other-dependent pattern, the imagined pattern does not exist, but the true reality pattern does exist. If one sees one, one does not see the other. We present a verse:
In the other-dependent, the imagined does not exist,
But true reality does exist.
Therefore the absence of realization and realization
Are both equally present in it.
The elucidation of what has been taught consists of explaining and analyzing texts that have previously been taught [by the Buddha] in the light of later commentaries, whether concerning the assemblage of good qualities [of the Buddha] or the various aims of practice [of bodhisattvas].
(T132-134) An exposition of the Mahayana must include the following points: the teaching of dependent origination, the teaching of the characteristics of the dependently originated, and the teaching of the meaning of received statements. The teaching of dependent origination comes in the statement that all factors have arisen from traces due to mental talk, and that the traces have also arisen from the factors. The teaching of the characteristics of the dependently originated is the teaching that the evolving consciousnesses have as their essential natures a perception endowed with a mental mark and an observation of this mark, and have as their characteristics the dependent as their support, the mentally constructed as their manner of appearance, and the perfected as underlying reality. For, in the dependent the constructed is really nonexistent, which is equivalent to saying that the perfected exists in the dependent.
The body of good qualities, which is an elucidation of the World-Honored Buddha's good qualities [as presented in the scriptures], consists of the purest wisdom: (1) his non-dual action, (2) his unmarked state of being the highest refuge, (3) his arrival at the Buddha abode, (4) his realization of equality with all Buddhas, (5) his attainment of unhindered activity, (6) his unerring and unopposable doctrine, (7) his unchanging sphere, (8) his inconceivable establishment of doctrine, (9) his equality in regard to the three times, (10) his manifestation of bodies in all world realms, (11) his unhindered wisdom in all things, (12) his wisdom joined with all his practices, (13) his wisdom without doubt in regard to all things, (14) his unimaginable bodies, (15) his wisdom as that which is to be experienced by all bodhisattvas, (16) the perfection of his non-dual Buddha abode, (17) his attainment of the undifferentiated liberation wisdom of a Tathagata, (18) the finality of his attainment of equality in all Buddha lands, (19) the ultimacy of his Reality Realm, and (20) his extension to the limit of the realm of empty space.
Just as the initial phrase "purest wisdom" is interpreted later by the commentarial explanations, so one must in turn distinguish and interpret each of the following phrases.
If one would correctly explain the meaning of the doctrine, he must expand upon "the purest wisdom" by explaining that the wisdom of the Buddhas and Tathagatas is pure and without misunderstanding in regard to all things. In this basic meaning are comprised all twenty-one good qualities: (1) the quality of arising without any obstacle to knowing whatsoever; (2) the qual-ity of causing entrance into the highest purity of true suchness without duality in regard to being and nonbeing; (3) the quality of the Buddha abode wherein the Tathagata's activity is effortless and uninterrupted; (4) the quality of the absence of differentiation in support, intention, and action in the Dharma body; (5) the quality of countering all obstacles to practice; (6) the quality of suppressing all heretical doctrines; (7) the quality of arising in the world without being defiled by worldly states; (8) the quality of true doctrine validly established; (9) the quality of responding to the questions of others through the four skillful answers; (10) the quality of manifesting Enjoyment bodies in all world realms; (11) the quality of resolving the doubts of others; (12) the quality of introducing others to various practices; (13) the quality of understanding the arising of future things; (14) the quality of manifestation in accord with the aspirations of sentient beings; (15) the quality of taming sentient beings by the true doctrine through convening unlimited assemblies; (16) the quality of the fullness of perfection of the equal Dharma body; (17) the quality of manifesting pure Buddha lands in accord with the aspirations of sentient beings; (18) the quality of the inseparability and undifferentiation of the three Buddha bodies; (19) the quality of engendering benefit and gladness for all sentient beings to the limit of the birth-death cycle; and (20) the quality of inexhaustibility.
(T134-143) Explanations of each of the received statements regarding the Buddha (i.e., 'The Buddha has a pure intellect", "The Buddha penetrates the dharma without characteristics", etc.), in terms of preceding expositions in this treatise.
"The various aims of practice" are expressed in the scripture as, "If a bodhisattva has thirty-two qualities, he is called a bodhisattva." They embrace the intention to bestow benefit and gladness upon sentient beings: (1) their intention to lead sentient beings to enter the wisdom of omniscience; (2) their wisdom to accord with their present situations; (3) their abandonment of pride; (4) the firmness of their good intentions; (5) their intention of being benevolent without simulation, of not currying favor, of being impartial to friend and foe, and of always being good teachers until they enter final cessation; (6) their quality of speaking in good measure and gently, smiling before beginning to talk; (7) their compassion for all sentient beings without differentiation; (8) their not faltering or growing fainthearted in carrying out their tasks; (9) their quality of not becoming bored; (10) their quality of never being satiated with hearing doctrine; (11) their quality of confessing their own faults, while disregarding and not censuring the faults of others; (12) their quality of maintaining an awakened mind in all their deportment; (13) their quality of practicing disinterested charity, of not displaying fear in any destiny, of maintaining discipline, of being unerringly patient to all sentient beings, of zealously engendering all good states and practices, of cultivating contemplation, except those of the formless realm, and their wisdom joined to skillful means, i.e., yoked to the four enticements; (14) their quality of being good friends to both the disciplined and the undisciplined without distinction, of being respectful in serving good teachers, of being respectful in hearing doctrine, of enjoying dwelling in forest places, of not being fond of worldly fads, of taking no joy in the lesser vehicle, of appreciating the Great Vehicle, and of avoiding evil friends and respecting and serving good friends; (15) their quality of constantly maintaining the four Brahma abodes, of maintaining unlimited purity of mind, of sporting in the five supernatural powers and taking refuge in wisdom; and (16) their quality of not abandoning people of either proper or improper conduct, but including everybody, of speaking in a definitive manner, of revering truth, and of prioritizing and respecting action.
The word "bodhisattva" is associated with these states. The above phrases have been taught [in the scriptures]. The interpretation through later [commentaries] means that "their intention to benefit and gladden sentient beings" is elucidated through sixteen descriptions of bodhisattva practice, which are (1) their continuous practice, (2) their unmistaken practice, (3) their personally initiated practice, (4) their indestructible practice, (5) their disinterested practice, which interprets the three phrases about their not currying favor, not being attached to or repulsed from attractive or unattractive sentient beings, and continually practicing in later lives,  their practice of speaking in accord with circumstances, which interprets the two phrases about speaking and smiling,  their impartial practice in regard to sentient beings, whether suffering, happy, or neither,  their practice of not denigrating others,  their practice of not backsliding,  their practice of skillful means of enticement,  their practice of destroying what must be countered, which interprets the two phrases about their own and others' faults,  their practice of uninterrupted deliberation,  their practice of cultivating excellence, which interprets the seven phrases about true meditation and intense practice of the six perfections and the four enticements that are done respectfully,  their practice of perfected skillful means, which interprets the six phrases about service to good teachers, hearing true doctrine, dwelling in forest places, avoiding perverse thoughts, true reflection, which covers two phrases, and associating with good friends, which is expressed in two phrases,  their practice of perfection, which interprets the three phrases about maintaining the immeasurable with purity of mind, the practice of august powers, and the realization of good qualities, and  their practice of establishing others, which covers four phrases about convening assemblies, proclaiming and teaching doctrine without hesitancy, gathering together offerings according to the doctrine, and the undefiled mind.
Through these commentarial explanations we have interpreted the previous passages. Here is a verse:
When one takes up the previous phrases,
They are analyzed as a sequence of good qualities.
When one takes up the previous passages,
Each is analyzed in light of its intention.
(T143-152) Bodhisattvas are characterized by the following factors: they have the high intention of doing good to all sentient beings, they introduce sentient beings to knowledge of everything, they know themselves perfectly, they have overcome all pride, their high intention is unswerving, they have a natural, unforced friendly love for all, the same awareness towards those friendly or inimical to them, and an infinite love (prema) for all beings, they express themselves in apt words and with a smiling face, their compassion has no limits, they are unfatigued by the burdens they have undertaken, their mental powers are indefatigable, they are insatiable to hear the dharma, they see their own faults and point out without anger the faults of others, they have the enlightenment-awareness constantly with them, they give without the notion of a reward, their ethical conduct does not depend on the condition of life they are in, their forbearance holds for everyone, their energy gathers all the roots of the beneficial, they practise meditations up to the imageless sphere without impediment, they are endowed with a wisdom which includes skill in means, their means are conformable to the four means of attracting others to the dharma respectfully, they live apart from the world and disdain its frivolities, they are not attracted to the Hinayana, they see the advantages of the Mahayana, they leave off bad friends and cultivate good friends, they perform all meditational practices, they do not abandon sentient beings in the good or bad destinies, their language is precise, they esteem the truth.
The Bodhisattvas' high intention of doing good to all sentient beings is comprised by sixteen acts: (1) acts of successive noninterrupted effort; (2) acts free from perversions, (3) acts undertaken even without another's asking them, (4) imperturbable acts, (5) acts without interest in reward, (6) bodily and verbal acts conforming to the high intentions, (7) acts equally efficacious for the unhappy, happy, and those who are neither, (8) courageous acts, (9) acts which can't be turned back, (10) acts conformable to skillful means, (11) acts putting aside that which is to be put aside, (12) acts with the reflection on the enlightenment awareness always present, (13) acts in conformity with the six perfections and the four means of attracting others to the dharma; (4) acts of effort towards fufillment in supporting good people, hearing the dharma, living apart from the world, abandoning bad discriminations, and acts of high quality in mental attention, (5) fulfilled acts in purity of infinite practices, getting special powers, and high quality in understanding, (16) acts proceeding to the highest, i.e., qualities helping attract people to the dharma, advice and teaching given without hesitation, uniting material interest with the dharma, and awarenesses without defilement.
№10400Добавлено: Пт 27 Янв 06, 06:36 (12 лет тому назад)
Abhidharma Scripture (Abhidharma-mahayana-sutra): and early Yogacara text preserved only in fragments.
active consciousness (pravrtti-vijnana): the seven consciousnesses of thinking, perceiving, and fivefold sensing, to be distinguished from the latent container consciousness.
appropriating consciousness (adava-vijnana): consciousness that appropriates the sense body and supports transmigration; a synonym for container consciousness.
defiled and pure aspect: therm in the Abhidharma Scripture for the other-dependent pattern.
defiled aspect: term in the Abhidharma Scripture for and imagined pattern.
imagined pattern (parikalpita svabhava): the appearance of nonexistent objects, which are only conscious constructs, as real.
evolution of consciousness (vijnana-parinama: the karmic developments of consciousness.
foundational consciousness (mula-vijnana): synonim for the container consciousness, foundational because it is the latent source of karmic conditioning for the active consciousnesses.
non-imaginative wisdom (nirvikalpa-jnana): non-discriminative wisdom.
other-dependent pattern (paratantra-svabhava): the consciously constructed differentiations that have the container consciousness as their seed and that are included within unreal imagining.
permeation (vasana): the influence of karmic seeds upon consciousness.
permeation of hearing (sruta-vasana): the imbuing of the mind with the hearing of doctrine.
pure aspect: term in the Abhidharma Scripture for the reality pattern.
reality pattern (parinispanna-svabhava): the eternal nonexistence in the other-dependent pattern of nonexistent objects.
seed (bija): the inner habit-energies that lie in the contained consciousness.
subsequently attained wisdom (prsthalabdha-jnana): correct discriminative wisdom relized after non-imaginative wisdom, in virtue of which a bodhisattva carries out the tasks of compassion.
suchness (tathata): the content of wisdom insight into things, just as they are, i.e., empty and dependently co-arisen.
ten distractions: the varities of distracted imaginings that must be countered by non-imaginative wisdom.
thought (manas): comprises both the immediately disappearing consciousness and defiled thinking.
three patterns (tri-svabhava): the three modes of consciousness--imagination, other-dependence, and reality.
three themes: the summary themes of the Great Vehicle according to Yogacara--dependent co-arising of consciousness, dependently co-arisen states or the active evolutions of consciousness, and the meaning of what has been taught, i.e., a hermeneutic drawn from Yogacara critical theory.
transmigration (samsara): the wheel of samsara.
undefiled purity (vimalya-vyavadana): original purity separated from all adventitious defilements.
wisdom of omniscience (sarva-jna): the all-knowing wisdom of bodhisattva.
№10600Добавлено: Пн 30 Янв 06, 05:48 (12 лет тому назад)
Chapter III. Entry into the Distinguishing Characteristics of the Knowable
the doctrine of conscious construction only is explained as entrance into the knowable
CHAPTER THREE. Entry into characteristic marks of what can be known
is the state of consciousness-only (vijnaptimatrata)
1. Having explained the distinguishing characteristics of the knowable, how are we to understand the distinguishing characteristics of entry into the knowable? [That entry] is supported by the permeations of much hearing [of the doctrine of the Great Vehicle] and is not comprised within the container consciousness. Rather, just as [occurs] with that container consciousness, so [this permeation] is a seed that develops [within consciousness]. It is comprised in correct reflection. [Such correct reflection in turn] arises from images that appear as doctrine and its meaning. [These images] are discriminated in mental words that are accompanied by insight and that appear as if connected to apprehended [realities].
1.(T153-154) Entry into the characteristics of that which can be known is through mental states impressed with the hearing of the dharma, which states are not to be confused with the store-consciousness.
2. Who enters into the characteristics of the knowable? All [bodhisattvas] who have permeated the continuities [of their consciousnesses] with much hearing of the Great Vehicle, who have already rendered service to all the innumerable Buddhas who appear in the world, who have already entered a true state of definitive commitment, and who, through well-matured meditation, have increased their good roots and thus accumulated the two stores of merit and wisdom.
2-3.(T154-156) Elaboration of this definition as having primarily to do with hearing Mahayana texts and entering into the path of the Bodhisattva.
3. At what points [in their development] do these bodhisattvas gain insight into conscious construction only? In virtue of a discrimination of the images and mental words accompanied by insight that appear as doctrine and its meaning, and in virtue of the arising of insight into the doctrine of the Great Vehicle, they enter the state of practicing earnest commitment upon firmly believing what they have heard; they enter the path of insight upon intelligently understanding [what they have heard]; they enter the path of meditation upon countering all obstacles [to that insight]; and they enter the final path upon going beyond obstructing defilement to the utmost purification. The reality of all things exists only as conscious construction as [just] explained, in virtue of an earnest commitment to what is heard, of an intelligent understanding, of a countering of all obstacles, and of a going beyond obstructing defilement to utmost purification.
4. Why do they come so to enter? Because they are supported by the force of good roots, because they have sharpened their minds in three aspects, because they have eradicated the four basic barriers, and because, with uninterrupted and reverent meditation upon the doctrine and its meaning in quietude and insight, they have not been distracted.
4.(T156-157) Necessary in this process is fortifying the roots of the beneficial, in allowing the awareness of enlightenment to arise in three ways, in showing a continuous heedfulness directed at peace and insight.
5. The first sharpening of their minds [is expressed in the following thought]: "Innumerable and immeasurable sentient beings in the human realm—since world realms in the ten directions are innumerable and immeasurable—from moment to moment realize supreme awakening." The second sharpening of their minds [is expressed in the thought that] "In virtue of correct intentions [of sentient beings] the perfections of giving and so forth inexorably mature. I too have committed myself and attained such stability and, in virtue of my correct intention, will without difficulty progress in the cultivation of the perfections of giving and so forth and attain their fullness." The third sharpening of their minds [is expressed in the thought that] "Persons with good mental states after death in all their rebirths effortlessly attain pleasant and joyful destinies, for they have attained a limited goodness. Even with their limited goodness these persons still come to such attainments. How then would I who have achieved perfect and unlimited goodness not come to attain pleasant and joyful destinies at will?" Here stanzas refer [to these three sharpenings]:
Sentient beings in the human realm
Realize awakening at each and every moment
In places beyond reckoning.
Thus let not your mind be downcast.
The commitment of good persons enables them
To engender the perfections of giving and so forth.
Since the Victors attain these dispositions,
They are enabled to cultivate giving and so forth.
When good persons die, they attain superior joy.
How then would not those whose purified goodness
In its perfection eliminates [all] gradations
Be lacking in these accomplishments?
5.(T157-159) The three ways the awareness of enlightenment arises: "Countless human beings in countless universes reach ultimate enlightenment in each moment"; "It's for this intention that sentient beings practise giving and the other perfections"; "Sentient beings with even limited beneficial actions arrive after death at the bodily perfections of their choice". The conclusion in all three cases is "if they can, so can I." (Quotes 165 Mahayanasutralamkara X.ll as if a work by another author.)
6. They eradicate the four barriers: (1) because they abandon the thoughts of word-hearers and the solitary enlightened, perverse notions are destroyed; (2) because they engender a mind of faith in and clear understanding of the Great Vehicle, they destroy all perverse ideas and doubts; (3) because they abandon perverse attachments to "I" and "mine" in regard to the doctrine they have heard and reflected upon, they destroy attachment to doctrine; and (4) because thoughts about images standing over against [their minds] are not discriminated, they are able to eradicate discrimination. Herein a stanza states:
Because the wise do not discriminate
Thoughts about all the images
That appear and stand before [them],
They attain supreme awakening.
6.(T159-160) The Bodhisattvas reject the mental attentions customary with disciples and self enlightened Buddhas They give up all doubts as to the Mahayana. They give up the idea of factors and selves. They abandon all discriminations to arrive at a constructionfree knowledge.
7. How and by what means do they come to full understanding concerning doctrine and its meaning? [They so understand] because of the discrimination of mental words accompanied by insight that are linked to the permeation of hearing, that are comprised in correct reflection, and that appear as doctrine and its meaning. [They so understand] because of the four inquiries on the designations of names, objects, essences, and differences. [They so understand] because of the four reality wisdoms, for in these four kinds of reality wisdoms names, objects, essences, and differences do not exist. When entering into the understanding of these things, bodhisattvas zealously endeavor to gain insight into conscious construction only through the appearance of the mental words involved in such insight, which appear as written words and meanings to be discriminated. They fully comprehend that the images of those written words are merely the discriminations of mental words, that objects, depending on names and words, are merely discriminations of mental words, and that such names, objects, essences, and differences are valid only as conventional designations. Then at this stage, upon realizing that they are only the discriminations of mental words, these practitioners of meditation see that designations are neither names nor objects, neither essences nor differences, since in their real character there are no objective essences or differences. Thus they gain insight into conscious construction only through the four inquiries and the four reality wisdoms that bear upon the names and objects that appear in the discrimination of mental words.
7.(E161-162) Description of the gradual entry of the Bodhisattva into understanding, starting with mental talk connected with hearing the Mahayana, then realizing that all words, objects, essential natures, and meaning of words are only nominal designations, then proceeding from this basis. Once it is realized that words, objects, essential natures and meaning of words are simply nominal designations because they have no objective character, the state of consciousness only is reached.
8. What state is entered in understanding conscious construction only? What is it like? One enters a state of cognition only, a state of duality of image and insight, and a state of multiplicity. Since the six images of names as essences, differences, and designations, and of objects as essences, differences, and designations, have no objectivity [one enters a state of cognition only]. Because of the subject and object structure, which also lacks objectivity [one enters a state of duality]. Because many apparently different patterns of things do appear simultaneously [one enters a state of multiplicity]. It is just as in the dark a rope might appear to be a snake, while in fact that snake is an illusion and does not exist in the rope. Thus when people have clearly examined the objective rope, their previously confused awareness of a snake is [seen] to be without objective foundation and falls away while only the rope is known to be present. Yet this knowledge of the rope, when subtly analyzed, is also chimerical and without objective foundation, because it is characterized by material form, odor, taste, and contact [none of which have any stable and objective foundation]. When the mind encounters these objects, its knowledge of the rope is also negated. When with a parallel insight one eradicates the apparent names and objects that appear in these six images, then discriminative, defiled understanding in mental words will no longer arise, just as in the knowledge of the snake. In suppressing objectivity in these six images, just as was the case with the knowledge of the rope, by relying on the wisdom of suchness, the understanding of conscious construction only itself can be rejected.
8.(T162-164) Elaboration of this process, which involves unity (consciousness only), duality (as sign and the observation of a sign), and multiplicity, since these two are manifested in limitless ways. Uses the image of the serpent and the rope, but in a more subtle way than is usual: Because it doesn't exist, the serpent seen in the rope is an illusion, but the rope itself, if one analyzes it according to its subtle aspects, is also an illusion since it can be perceived by different consciousnesses as being color, smell, taste, or tangible. In the same way, one finds out that word, object, essential nature, specifications, and essential nature and specifications together, are nonobjective, and one enters into the idea of consciousness only. But then one must in turn reject the idea of consciousness only itself.
9. In this fashion, in understanding that the images discriminated by the mental words appear as objective, the bodhisattva fully understands the imagined pattern. In understanding the meaning of conscious construction only, he fully understands the other-dependent pattern. But how does he understand the reality pattern? By abandoning any idea about conscious construction only! At that moment the bodhisattva clearly understands the imagining of mental words, which long since had been yoked to the permeations of hearing doctrine, and he suppresses any idea of their correspondence with the external world. These [ideas] no longer arise because their apparent objective status no longer has any cause and thus they do not even arise as an imagining of the mental words of conscious construction only. This implies that the bodhisattva dwells only in non-imagination in regard to all objects and names, and in virtue of non-imaginative wisdom he realizes and abides in the Reality Realm of suchness. He then enters the reality pattern because of the arising of non-imaginative wisdom wherein subject and object are entirely identical.
9.(T164-165) Nominal designations are the constructed; consciousness only is the dependent; abandonment of even the idea of consciousness-only is the perfected, constructionfree knowledge
10. Herein a stanza states:
Things and persons, texts and meanings,
Statements both concise and extended,
Beings defiled and purified, and the final stage— These ten are the different spheres of naming.
10.(T165-166) Factors, persons, religious statements, theses, brief expositions, more extended expositions, beings not yet purified, beings purified, conclusions, are all nothing but names.
11. Because the bodhisattva has gained insight into conscious construction only, he has attained understanding of the characteristics of the knowable. Through fully understanding these characteristics, he has attained entry into the first stage of joy, well penetrated into the Reality Realm, attained birth in the lineage of all Buddhas in the ten directions, and attained impartiality in thinking about all sentient beings, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas. This is termed the bodhisattva's path of insight.
11.(T166-167) Entry into consciousness-only is entry into the characteristics of the knowable. This is the first Bodhisattva stage, the awareness of the sameness of all sentient beings, the path of vision.
12. Why does the bodhisattva once again become aware of conscious construction only? Through a transcendent wisdom of quietude and insight focused on the all-pervading doctrine and through a wisdom characterized by a variety of images and conscious constructs attained subsequent to non-imaginative wisdom, he eradicates all the causal seeds in his fundamental container consciousness and nurtures all the seeds that enable one to contact the Dharma body. He converts his support and comes to attain the true qualities of all Tathagatas, and he attains the wisdom of omniscience. This is why he [again] becomes aware of conscious construction only. Seeing magical illusions in all the constructs that arise from the container consciousness and all the images of those imagined constructs, that wisdom attained subsequently to non-imaginative wisdom is fundamentally exempt from error. Just as a magician is himself undeceived by his magic tricks, so the bodhisattva, when enunciating the path of cause and result, always remains free from error in all his descriptions.
12.(T167-169) Both a supramundane knowledge based on peace and higher vision, and a subsequently attained knowledge which is worldly inasmuch as it again makes use of concepts but only as means, enter into consciousness only. This subsequently attained knowledge considers all phenomena arising from the storehouse consciousness as being like a magical creation.
13. When one truly gains understanding of conscious construction only, there are four concentrations that support the good roots of the four aids to penetration. How should a bodhisattva understand this? Through the four inquiries during the inferior efforts at recognizing the absence of objectivity, the Concentration of the Acquisition of Clarity supports good roots for aid to the penetration of fervor. In superior efforts at recognizing the absence of objectivity, the Concentration of Increased Clarity supports the good roots for aid to the penetration of crowning practice. In the four reality wisdoms, when the bodhisattva has gained insight into conscious construction only and clearly understands the absence of objectivity, the Concentration of Partially Penetrating Reality supports recognition that is well-disposed toward truth not mediated through language. Immediately following this concentration, the clear suppression of the idea of conscious construction only becomes an uninterrupted concentration that supports the highest worldly state. These four concentrations are methods whereby bodhisattvas gain insight into and bring to presence the truth not mediated through language.
13.(T169-170) In the course of entry into consciousness-only, the four aids to penetration arise.
14. When the bodhisattva enters the first stage, he has attained the path of insight and acquires full understanding of conscious construction only. But how does he practice meditation? How does he enter into the path of meditation? He attains [the stage of] presence as described in the teachings in the extensive discourses of the Buddha on the ten bodhisattva stages, which summarize the twelvefold scripture of the Great Vehicle taught by all Tathagatas, because he masters both the general and the specific [meaning of doctrine] since he engenders transcendent, non-imaginative wisdom that focuses on the far-reaching universal import [of doctrine] and a wisdom of quietude and insight acquired subsequently to that non-imaginative wisdom [which focuses on specific doctrinal meanings]; because for immeasurable and incalculable millions of aeons he relies on these many practices of meditation; because, by virtue of his conversions of support both previously and presently attained, he intensifies his meditative practices in order to bring about an attainment of the three Buddha bodies.
14.(T171) Sustained practice of peace and higher vision is the spiritual path.
15. What are the differences in the path of insight of word-hearers and bodhisattvas? There are eleven differences herein: (1) a difference of object in that the object for a bodhisattva is the doctrine of the Great Vehicle; (2) a difference of support in that his support is the store of great merit and wisdom; (3) a difference in penetration in that he penetrates the non-self of both persons and things; (4) a difference in cessation in that he reposes upon non-abiding cessation as his abode; (5) a difference in stages in that he relies on the ten stages for liberation; (6) and (7) a difference in purification in that he both destroys the permeation of passion and brings pure lands to purity; (8) a difference in impartiality of mind in regard to sentient beings in that, in order to mature sentient being6, he does not discard effort in relation to their good roots and merits; (9) a difference in birth in that he is born in the lineage of the Tathagatas; (10) a difference in manifestation in that he is always able to appear in the great assemblies of Buddha's sons in order to uphold the true doctrine; and (11) a difference in results in that his results are the ten powers, the fearlessnesses, the exclusive Buddha qualities, and the arising of untold good qualities.
15.(T171-174) What difference is there between the full understanding of the disciples and that of Bodhisattvas? The full understanding of Bodhisattvas is different as to its object of consciousness: as to its support, because it is based on great preparations in merit and knowledge; as to its penetration, since it penetrates not only the selflessness of personality, but also the selflessness of factors; as to its nirvana, since it involves only a nirvana which is based nowhere (apratisthitanirvana); as to its stages; as to its purification, since it suppresses not only the impressions of the obstruction which are defiling, but also the impressions of the obstructions of the knowable, and purifies the Buddha fields; by being equally attentive to the aims of others as to "one's own"; by its birth, since it arises only in the Tathagata-lineage; by its accomplishments, and by its results: the ten powers, the special Buddha-factors, etc.
16. Herein two stanzas [on the four inquiries] state:
The bodhisattva must inquire into the fact that
The interdependence of name and object is incidental.
He must meditate on the duality [of their essences] as unitary,
And as a conventional designation [of their differences].
From this he engenders reality wisdom, apart from
Objectifying the three ideas [of name, essence, and difference].
If he sees that these do not exist,
He enters into the three absences of essence.
16.(T174-175) (Quotes 165. Mahayanasutralamkara XIX, 47 as if a work by another author.) Since an "objective" object doesn't exist, the three essential natures [constructed, dependent, perfected) also don't exist.
17. Two further stanzas on the true teaching, as given in the Treatise on Meditating on Conscious Construction, state:
In states of quiescence the bodhisattva
Understands that images exist only in his mind,
And, abandoning externalized ideas of objects,
He assuredly understands them to be only his own thoughts.
Abiding within himself, the bodhisattva
Understands that the objective realm does not exist,
And also that the subjective realm is empty.
He then directly experiences the unobtainability of both.
17.(T175-176) (Quotes a lost Yogacaravibhaga) The meditationally concentrated Bodhisattva sees that all reflections are only mind. Rejecting all identifications of an object, he understands that only those identifications of his exist. He realizes that the object perceived does not exist, then he realizes that by this fact the subject apprehender also does not exist. And so he reaches a state of nonapprehenson.
18. Five verses from the Ornament of Scriptures of the Great Vehicle illustrate the point:
Having nurtured the two stores of merit
And wisdom without limit,
A bodhisattva, in virtue of his certainty
In reflection on doctrine,
Is able to understand that the varied objects
Are caused by ideas.
Knowing that the varied objects are only ideas,
He abides in conscious construction only,
Wherein objects appear.
Therefore a practitioner of meditation realizes
The Dharma Realm
And is liberated both from duality and
From a non-duality [that would ignore those appearances].
If one knows that there nothing remains apart from mind,
Then he realizes also that mind does not exist either.
Seeing both to be nonexistent, the sage
Abides in the true Reality Realm of non-duality.
The sage, through non-imaginative wisdom
Is constantly impartial in all his actions,
And the dense thicket of
Error with its defiled support is banished and eliminated,
Just as a medicine expels a poison.
The sage, who is well-grounded in the true doctrine
Taught by the Buddha,
Places his mind at its root upon the Reality Realm and, Knowing that memory is merely imagination,
Arrives at the shore of the ocean of good qualities.
18.(T176-179) (Quotes 165. Mahayanasutralamkara VI, 6-10 as if a work by a different author.)
(This Chapter of this treatise thus demonstrates that the final point of view, or nonpoint of view, of Yogacara, at least as conceived at its origin, is neither the consciousness theory (which is purely preliminary), nor the idea of the three essential natures (which is a way of outlining the process of defilement to purification), nor even the idea of consciousness-only which follows from a knowledge of the three essential natures, but a constructionfree knowledge where subject" and "consciousness" are equally as absent as "object" and "the perceived." )
№24430Добавлено: Пт 10 Ноя 06, 05:38 (11 лет тому назад)
II.2.15. If the support whereby what is only a conscious construction appears as an external object is termed the other-dependent pattern, how [in the absence of an external object as other] does it come to be dependent on others?Why is it said to be other-dependent?Because, arising from its own seminal permeation, it is interwoven with causes and cannot be independent [it is dependent on others].Because it does not arise spontaneously and cannot even for an instant be independent, it is termed other-dependent.
If the imagined pattern is the other-dependent appearance of external objects as real, when they really do not exist, then how does it come to be imagined?Why is it termed imagined?Because the discriminations of thinking consciousness in unlimited ways cause error, it comes to be imagined.Because it has no specific character of its own, but is only the seeing of imagined distinctions, it is termed imagined.
If the reality pattern is characterized as the eternal absence of the imagined pattern, how does it come to be reality?Why is it termed reality?Because suchness is never not suchness, it is reality.Because it perfectly purifies all realms and is the highest of all good states in the fullness of ultimate meaning, it is termed reality.
Если основание, посредством которого то, что является лишь конструктом сознания (глосс. vijnapti-matrata) видится как внешний объект, называемо зависимым-от-другого принципом (глосс. paratantra-svabhava), как [в отсутствии другого внешнего объекта] он оказывается зависимым от других? Почему говорится зависимый-от-другого? Это происходит потому, что возникая от собственной биджа-васаны он переплетён с причинами и не может быть независимым от них. Он называется так потому, что он не возникает самопроизвольно и не может ни на миг быть независимым.
Если воображаемый принцип (parikalpita-svabhava), это зависимая-от-другого видимость внешних объектов реальными, в то время как на самом деле они не существуют, как это происходит и почему он так называется? Это происходит потому, что различения думающим сознанием без ограничений порождают ошибку. Он так называется, потому что у него нет своего специфического признака, но он лишь видение воображаемых различий.
Если реальный принцип (parinispanna-svabhava) характеризуется как вечное отсутствие воображаемого принципа, то как он оказывается реальным? Почему называется реальным (т.е. "завершенным")? Потому что таковость никогда не бывает не таковостью. Потому что он совершенно очищает все сферы и высшее из всех благих состояний в полноте высшего смысла.
Последний раз редактировалось: test (Пт 10 Ноя 06, 13:24), всего редактировалось 3 раз(а)
№24436Добавлено: Пт 10 Ноя 06, 08:12 (11 лет тому назад)
Если основание посредством которого, являющееся лишь конструктом сознания (глосс. vijnapti-matrata)1, видится как внешний объект2, называется зависимым-от-другого принципом (глосс. paratantra-svabhava), как [в отсутствии другого внешнего объекта] он оказывается зависимым от других?
Выбери один из вариантов запятых - что видится как внешний объект - "основание" или "являющееся"? Скорее последнее, конечно... А так вроде неплохо получилось. _________________ यथावस्थितवस्तुस्थिति
"Читай не затем, чтобы противоречить и опровергать, не затем, чтобы принимать на веру; и не затем, чтобы найти предмет для беседы; но чтобы мыслить и рассуждать." (Ф. Бэкон)
№24453Добавлено: Пт 10 Ноя 06, 12:33 (11 лет тому назад)
Говорят* вторая глава есть на санскрите, найдена в первой половине прошлого века в Kasyapaparivarta. В интернете я ее вообще никак не смог найти. Может кто-то может по научным каналом её отыскать?
* Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 60, No. 1. (Mar., 1940), pp.115-116. (J.K. Shryock.)
№24455Добавлено: Пт 10 Ноя 06, 13:04 (11 лет тому назад)
Реальный принцип - это паринишпанна свабхава, а парикалпита сопутствует паратантра свабхаву. Определение паратантры как зависимого от другого страдает логическими и онтологическими несоответствиями, так как на самом деле это парикалпита свабхава зависит от паратантра свабхавы, в силу чего последняя называется паратантрой, природой, служащей в качестве паратантрического коррелята, источником зависимости. _________________ mudrost.org
№24456Добавлено: Пт 10 Ноя 06, 13:42 (11 лет тому назад)
Говорят* вторая глава есть на санскрите, найдена в первой половине прошлого века в Kasyapaparivarta. В интернете я ее вообще никак не смог найти. Может кто-то может по научным каналом её отыскать?
Хотя тот-же человек там же в статье пишет, что в Махаянасамграхе 20 глав, хотя их там по определению 10. Так что "вторая глава" может быть чем угодно.
Реальный принцип - это паринишпанна свабхава,
а парикалпита сопутствует паратантра свабхаву. Определение паратантры как зависимого от другого страдает логическими и онтологическими несоответствиями, так как на самом деле это парикалпита свабхава зависит от паратантра свабхавы, в силу чего последняя называется паратантрой, природой, служащей в качестве паратантрического коррелята, источником зависимости.
Парикальпита не может зависеть, так как она воображаемая, и если она будет зависеть, то тут-же превратится в паратантру. Я так думаю, что сущность парикальпиты, это "нарушение" паратантрической зависимости. Как говорится "различения ... без ограничений порождают ошибку". Пока идет обоснованное мышление/познание оно паратантра, как только теряется основание (или как сказано теряются "ограничения") оно превращается в парикальпиту. А паратантра оказывается у Асанги зависимой от самой себя, однако содержит в себе элемент зависимости, которого нет в парикальпите.
№24461Добавлено: Пт 10 Ноя 06, 16:42 (11 лет тому назад)
Парикалпита зависит от всего. В случае со слоном, парикалпитный слон зависит как от предмета, который служит в качестве реального субстрата иллюзии, а именно деревянной палки, так и от мантры илюзиониста. Палка - это паратантра, а мантра - паринишпанна свабхава. _________________ mudrost.org
№24468Добавлено: Пт 10 Ноя 06, 17:42 (11 лет тому назад)
Ну так вот. Паринишпанна не может быть условием ни для чего, так как это как-бы асамскрита дхарма. Поэтому паратантра зависит только от себя (в сторону: почему же её сразу так не назвать?). Парикальпитный слон в своей парикальпитности не зависит ни от чего, так как зависимость, это принцип паратантрический, а парикальпитный принцип как раз независимость (не ограниченность). Поэтому парикальпита не зависит ни от чего, однако она же и есть паратантра по происхождению.
If in this sense the other-dependent pattern comes to be in all three patterns, then how can there be three patterns? How can these three different patterns not become commingled? There is no commingling because of the principle that, when this pattern becomes other-dependent, it does not thereby become either imagined or reality; that when it becomes imagined, it does not thereby become other-dependent or reality; and that when it becomes reality, it does not thereby become either other-dependent or imagined.
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