№47626Добавлено: Пн 04 Фев 08, 08:34 (10 лет тому назад)Раскрытие аналогии (vIrya=zIrSaka)
The Buddha has patience (kṣānti) as his armor (varman),
Energy (vīrya) as his helmet (śīrṣaka),
Discipline (śīla) as his great steed (mahāśva),
Dhyāna as his bow (dhanus),
Wisdom (prajñā) as his arrows (śara).
Outwardly, he destroys the army of Māra (mārasena).
Inwardly, he destroys the passions (kleśa), his enemies.
He is called Arhat.
Непонятно почему энергия, это шлем.
ps. Всё остальное я понял так:
Терпение - броня, так терпением преодолевается грубое страдание.
Энергия - шлем... Защищает голову-ум?... Или постоянно напоминает о битве?
Дисциплина - конь, так как она доставляет на поле боя (т.е. основа для концентрации, мудрости и прочих способностей.)
Дхьяна - лук, так как она придает пробивающую силу, облегчает победу.
Праджня - стрела, так как она попадает в цель (в противника).
Аллегорически говорится о победе над армией Мары.
По сути говорится о уничтожении омрачений.
Поэтому Архат называется "убийцей врагов".
Последний раз редактировалось: test (Пн 04 Фев 08, 10:35), всего редактировалось 1 раз
№47629Добавлено: Пн 04 Фев 08, 09:02 (10 лет тому назад)
Традиционно энергия (vIrya) - самое главное преодолевает лень (kusIda), а так-же: исполняет желания; общая причина всех благих качеств; производит благие и удаляет неблагие дхармы; поддерживает желание, усилие и непрерывность деятельности.
№47631Добавлено: Пн 04 Фев 08, 09:25 (10 лет тому назад)
Earth (pṛthivī) has as characteristic solidity (khakkhaṭatva); fire (tejas) has as characteristic heat (uṣṇatva); water has as characteristic moistness (dravatva); wind (vāyu) has as characteristic motion (īraṇa).
The eye (cakṣus) has as characteristic being the support of the visual consciousness (cakusurvijñāna); and [mutates mutandis] it is the same for the ear (śrotra), nose (ghrāṇa), tongue (jihva) and body (kāya).
Consciousness (vijñāna) has as characteristic investigation (vitarka); knowledge (jñāna) has as characteristic wisdom (prajñā); generosity (dāna) has as characteristic renunciation (parityāga); morality (śīla) has as characteristic absence of regret (akaukṛtya) and absence of violence (avihiṃsā); patience (kṣānti) has as characteristic absence of irritation (akopana); exertion (vīrya) has as characteristic effort (abhyutsāha); trance (dhyāna) has as characteristic concentration of the mind (cittasaṃgraha); wisdom (prajñā) has as characteristic mental detachment (asaṅga), skillful means (upāya) has as characteristic the creation of objects (vastusaṃpādana); saṃsāra has as characteristic the weaving of births and deaths (cyutyupapāda); nirvāṇa has as characteristic non-weaving.533
Such dharmas each has its own specific characteristic and we should know that these characteristics are empty: this is what is called ‘emptiness of specific characteristics (svalakṣaṇaśūnyatā). For other meanings, refer to what has been said about the emptiness of essences (prakṛtiśūnyatā, no. 12) since essence (prakṛti) and characteristic (lakṣaṇa) are synonyms.
4) Furthermore, when the bodhisattva is endowed with the purity of morality (śīlaśuddhisaṃpanna), he no longer distinguishes between morality (śīla) and immorality (dauḥśīlya).373 In the face of dharmas absolutely without birth (atyantānutpanna) and always empty (sadāśūnya), his dharmakṣānti and his exertion (vīrya) are unceasing. He has neither attraction nor aversion. [To his eyes] exertion (vīrya) and laziness (kausīdya) are of the same nature (ekalakṣaṇa) and no different.374 For immense (paramāṇa) infinite (ananta) and incalculable (asaṃkhyeya) kalpas, he has practiced exertion diligently and, in general, he takes up and practices the most profound concentrations (gambhīrasamādhi), but without being attached to them, for concentrations (samādhi) and distraction (vikṣepa) are no different.375 Without leaving concentration, he creates for himself (nirmimīte) an immense body that fills the ten directions completely, preaches the Dharma and saves people.
Про колесницу Махаяна:
Great loving-kindness (maitrī) is its axle-tree’
Wisdom (prajñā) is its two wheels,
Energy (vīrya) is its steed,
Discipline (śīla) and the samādhis are its nails.
Patience (kṣānti) and shame (lajjā) are its timbering,
The dhāraṇīs are its reins.
The Vehicle of the Mahāyāna
Can cross over anything.
Праджня - два колеса. Энергия - конь, тут понятно, так как она тянет. Шила и самадхи - гвозди, терпение и стыд - дерево, дхарани вожжи.
№47632Добавлено: Пн 04 Фев 08, 09:40 (10 лет тому назад)
A man who had committed an offence against the king was commanded by the latter to take a chest containing four venomous snakes and to guard them and take care of them. The man said: “It is dangerous to come near these four snakes; they kill anyone who approaches them. It is impossible to feed even one of these snakes, let alone four at once.” Then he threw away the chest and fled. The king ordered five men to take their swords and pursue him. Thereupon, an individual, of attractive speech but inwardly hostile, said to the man: “It would be reasonable to feed these snakes; that would not cause any harm.” Smelling a rat, our man went his own way and saved his life by fleeing. He came to an empty village where an honest man skillfully (upāyena) said to him: “Although this village is empty, it serves as a stopping-place for thieves. If you stay here, you should watch out for the robbers. So don’t stay here.” Then our man came to a great river; on the other shore of the river (pāra), there was a foreign land, a very happy country (sukhāvatī), peaceful, pure and free of torment. Immediately, our man gathered materials and ropes and built himself a raft. Using his hands and feet, he paddled across the river and reached the other shore, Sukhāvatī, free of torment.
The king is king Māra; the chest is the human body; the four poisonous snakes are the four great elements (caturmahābhūta); the five solders with drawn swords are the five aggregates (pañcaskandha); the individual with fine words but bad intentions is attachment (saṅga); the empty village is the six attractions (ruci); the thieves are the six sense objects (ṣaḍbāhyāyatana); the honest man who addresses him with compassion is the good teacher; the great river is thirst (tṛṣṇā); the raft is the Noble eightfold Path (āṣṭāṅgikāryamārga); paddling with hands and feet is exertion (vīrya); this shore is the world (loka); the other shore is nirvāṇa; the man who crosses over is the arhat who has destroyed the defilements (kṣīṇāsrava).
№47633Добавлено: Пн 04 Фев 08, 09:46 (10 лет тому назад)
Я бы скорее сказал не энергия, а энергичность (на английском оба эти значения есть у energy). То есть, психическая активность в нужном направлении. _________________ "Счастье в жизни - как радость от последнего обеда заключенного перед казнью."
№47634Добавлено: Пн 04 Фев 08, 09:54 (10 лет тому назад)
В обьяснении парамит:
Question. – Exertion is the root (mūla) of all good dharmas (kuśaladharma): it should be first; why is it here placed in fourth place?
Answer. – 1) Generosity (dāna). morality (śīla) and patience (kṣānti) always exist in the world (loka).
Вирья не нужна для практики первых трёх парамит, но нужна для постижения истинной природы дхарм:
But here, the bodhisattva who wishes to know the true nature of dharmas and to practice the virtue of wisdom must practice rapture (dhyāna), the rapture that is the gateway to true wisdom, Now, in order to practice rapture, diligence (ūrjā), exertion (vīrya) and one-pointedness (ekacitta) are necessary.
Commonly there are two gateways (dvāra) for arriving at buddhahood, namely, merit (puṇya) and wisdom (prajñā). The practice of generosity, morality and patience is the puṇyadvāra; the understanding of the true nature of dharmas, or the great virtue of wisdom, is the prajñādvāra. The bodhisattva who enters by the puṇyadvāra and avoids all the sins (āpatti) realizes all his aspirations (praṇidhāna). If he does not realize his aspirations because his faults (āpatti) and defilements (mala) counteract them, he enters into the prajñādvāra; then he has no distaste (nirveda) for saṃsāra or attraction (rati) for nirvāṇa, for both are but one thing. Now he wants to produce the great virtue of wisdom which depends on rapture (dhyāna); dhyāna [in turn] requires great exertion of effort (mahāvīryabala). Why? Because, if the mind is distracted (vikṣipta), it cannot see the true nature of dharmas. Thus, a lamp burning in the full wind cannot light up anything; but if the lamp is placed in a closed room, it will give off plenty of light. Rapture (dhyāna) and wisdom (prajñā) cannot be carried on by meritorious actions (puṇya), and cannot be obtained by means of gross considerations (sthūladarśana). In order to attain them, bodily and mental effort (kāyikacaitasikābhoga) and unrelaxing eagerness (asraṃsama) are needed. Thus the Buddha said: ”May my blood, flesh, fat and marrow dry up, may I be reduced to skin, bone and tendons, but never will I abandon exertion.”366 This is how one acquires rapture and wisdom; when one has these two, one possesses all. That is why exertion is in the fourth place; it is the root of rapture and true wisdom. In the first three virtues [generosity, morality and patience], there is indeed some exertion, but so little that we do not speak of it.
№47636Добавлено: Пн 04 Фев 08, 10:30 (10 лет тому назад)
Про противоположность вирьи - лень:
Moreover, for many reasons, the bodhisattva criticizes laziness (kausīdya) and is joyfully attached to exertion. Laziness is a black cloud that hides clear wisdom; it engulfs the qualities (guṇa) and cultivates evil (akuśala). The lazy person at first feels a little joy, but later suffers greatly. Laziness is like poisoned food (viṣāhāra) which at the beginning gives off a pleasant perfume but kills the person in the long run. Laziness burns all the qualities like a great fire that ravages the entire jungle. The lazy person loses all their qualities; it is as if he underwent looting and had nothing left.
Sometimes the Buddha speaks about zeal (chanda), sometimes of exertion (vīrya) and sometimes of conscientiousness (apramāda).378 Zeal is compared to a man who, on the point of making a journey, first decides to go. Exertion is compared to a man who, once on his journey, decides not to stop. Conscientiousness is compared to a man who is careful that his journey does not slow down. From this we know that zeal gives rise to exertion, that exertion in turn gives rise to conscientiousness and that conscientiousness in turn produces all the good dharmas including arriving at the state of buddhahood.
Moreover, the bodhisattva who wants to escape from birth, old age, sickness and death and who also wants to save beings always needs exertion (vīrya), one-pointedness (ekacitta) and conscientiousness (apramāda).
Moreover, the bodhisattva has the following three thoughts (manasikāra): If I myself do not act, I will not obtain the reward (vipākaphala); that which I myself will not have done will not come to me from others; that which I will have done myself will never be lost. Thanks to these reflections, he will inevitably be energetic; to attain Buddhahood, he will be diligent, active and conscientious.
Question. – What are the characteristics of exertion (vīryalakṣaṇa)?
Answer. – Dynamism in activity, ease in enterprises, firmness of will, ardor of spirit, perseverance in action: these five things constitute the characteristics of exertion.
Moreover, according to the words of the Buddha, the characteristic of exertion is bodily and mental non-withdrawal (kāyikacaitasikāsraṃsanatā).
Отличие вирья парамиты от просто вирьи:
Exertion that aims at obtaining the state of buddhahood is called virtue; exertion that has all the other good dharmas in view is called just exertion and not virtue. [...] Virtue (pāramitā) indicates arrival at the other shore (pāram ita). Now people of the world (loka), śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas cannot practice the virtues completely. Therefore there is no virtue of exertion in them.
Вирья в пяти дхармах:
2) Vīrya (exertion) in the observance of the precepts (śīla), in leaving family life, concentrated zeal without laziness (kausīdya) during the two watches of the night, limited food (mitabhojana) and one-pointedness of mind (cittasaṃgrahaṇa) without distraction (vikṣepa).442
В парамитах опять:
4. By means of exertion (vīrya) he destroys all laziness (kausīdya) now and in the future in acquiring the merits of the Path; thus he obtains a vajra body and an unshakeable mind (achalacitta). With this body and mind, he destroys the pride (abhimāna) of worldly people and makes them obtain nirvāṇa.
Вирья как единственная парамита (т.е. включающая все остальные), (каждая парамита может быть единственной):
4. Exertion (virya) is present in all the good dharmas and is able to realize all the good dharmas. While wisdom, in measuring and analyzing dharmas, penetrates the nature of things (dharmadhātu), exertion lends its help. On the other hand, knowing that the true nature of exertion is independent of the body and the mind, the bodhisattva is truly unshakeable. Such exertion can give rise to Prajñāpāramitā; other exertions, in the manner of magic (māyā) or dream (svapna) are false and unreal; that is why they are not spoken of.
4) Exertion (vīrya) constitutes: a. the four right efforts (samyakpradhāna); b. the faculty of exertion (vīryendriya); c. the power of exertion (vīryabala); d. the factor-of-enlightenment called exertion (vīryasaṃbodhyaṅga); e. the [factor-of-the path] called right effort (samyagvyāyāma).
Как ворота самадхи:
Exertion (vīrya) in the face of the five objects of enjoyment (pañcakāmaguṇa) controls the mind, removes the five obstacles (nīvaraṇa),245 concentrates the mind and prevents distractions (vikṣepa). When the mind wanders off, exertion brings it back and prevents it from scattering. It also is a gate of samādhi.
№47722Добавлено: Ср 06 Фев 08, 15:03 (10 лет тому назад)
Я это к тому, что подлинность аналогии можно раскрыть лишь в опыте медитации-визуализации. Тогда каждая аналогия займет свое место и будет временным или временно-постоянным объектом для медитации.
Построение образа в целом, наверное, походит на стадию зарождения (образа) как в тантре. После завершения построения визуализации мы получаем законченный образ божества (но не ради него самого), а как поддержку для практикующего вне периода медитации. По крайней пока что я могу сделать именно такой, помежуточный вывод, чтобы оградить ум от дальнейших умопостроений.
А что за текст (периода, года) вы цитируете? Это действительно слова Будды?
Попробуйте сами пососредотачиваться на образе Победителя воинств Мары, согласно аналогиям.
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