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samadhi (разбор дефиниции)

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272212СообщениеДобавлено: Вт 08 Мар 16, 01:04 (2 года тому назад)    samadhi (разбор дефиниции) Ответ с цитатой

Буддагоса в Kammaṭṭhānaggahaṇaniddeso пишет:

(i) WHAT IS CONCENTRATION? Concentration is of many sorts and has various aspects. An answer that attempted to cover it all would accomplish neither its intention nor its purpose and would, besides, lead to distraction; so we shall confine ourselves to the kind intended here, calling concentration profitable unification of mind.2

3. (ii) IN WHAT SENSE IS IT CONCENTRATION? It is concentration (samādhi) in the sense of concentrating (samādhāna). What is this concentrating? It is the centering (ādhāna) of consciousness and consciousness-concomitants evenly (samaṃ) and rightly (sammā) on a single object; placing, is what is meant. [85] So it is the state in virtue of which consciousness and its concomitants remain evenly and rightly on a single object, undistracted and unscattered, that should be understood as concentrating.

4. (iii) WHAT ARE ITS CHARACTERISTIC, FUNCTION, MANIFESTATION, AND PROXIMATE CAUSE? Concentration has non-distraction as its characteristic.3 Its function is to eliminate distraction. It is manifested as non-wavering. Because of the words 'Being blissful, his mind becomes concentrated' (D.i,73), its proximate cause is bliss.
2 'Cittass' ekaggatā' is rendered here as 'unification of mind' in the sense of agreement or harmony (cf. samagga) of consciousness and its concomitants in focussing on a single object (see A.i.70). It is sometimes rendered 'onepointedriess' in that sense, or in the sense of the focussing of a searchlight. It may be concluded that this term is simply a synonym for samādhi and nothing more, firstly from its use in the suttas, and secondly from the fact that it is given no separate definition in the description of the formations aggregate in Ch. XIV. Cf. gloss at MA.i,124.
3 'The characteristic of non-distraction is the individual essence peculiar to concentration. Hence no analysis of it is possible, which is why he said: "It is of one kind with the characteristic of non-distraction" ' (Pm. 91).

Ko samādhīti samādhi bahuvidho nānappakārako. Taṃ sabbaṃ vibhāvayituṃ ārabbhamānaṃ vissajjanaṃ adhippetañceva atthaṃ na sādheyya, uttari ca vikkhepāya saṃvatteyya, tasmā idhādhippetameva sandhāya vadāma, kusalacittekaggatā samādhi.

Kenaṭṭhena samādhīti samādhānaṭṭhena samādhi. Kimidaṃ samādhānaṃ nāma? Ekārammaṇe cittacetasikānaṃ samaṃ sammā ca ādhānaṃ, ṭhapananti vuttaṃ hoti. Tasmā yassa dhammassānubhāvena ekārammaṇe cittacetasikā samaṃ sammā ca avikkhipamānā avippakiṇṇā ca hutvā tiṭṭhanti, idaṃ samādhānanti veditabbaṃ.

Kānassa lakkhaṇarasapaccupaṭṭhānapadaṭṭhānānīti ettha pana avikkhepalakkhaṇo samādhi, vikkhepaviddhaṃsanaraso, avikampanapaccupaṭṭhāno. ‘‘Sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyatī’’ti vacanato pana sukhamassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. http://tipitaka.org/romn/cscd/e0101n.mul3.xml

• "profitable unification of mind" = kusalacittekaggatā

• "centering (ādhāna)"
Ādhāna (nt.) [ā + dhāna] -- 1. putting up, putting down, placing, laying A iv.41 (aggissa ādhānaŋ, v. l. of 6 MSS ādānaŋ). -- 2. receptacle M i.414 (udak˚), cp. ādheyya. <-> 3. enclosure, hedge Miln 220 (kaṇṭak˚ thorny brake, see under kaṇṭaka). http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:1:2704.pali

(skt.) AdhAna n. putting near or upon , depositing , placing S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Mn. &c. ; lighting , kindling , placing a fire (especially the sacred fire , cf. %{agny-A-} above) S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. A1s3vGr2. &c. ; impregnating (cf. %{garbhA7-}) Megh. iii , &c. ; a ceremony performed before coition ; adding Va1m. ; causing , effecting MBh. Ragh. Megh. &c. ; pledging , depositing Ya1jn5. ; taking , having , receiving ; assigning , attributing , employing ; containing , being in possession of ; the place in which anything is deposited or rests S3Br. ; the bit of a bridle TS. http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche?dictionary=mwd&prst=exact&st=AdhAna

• "consciousness and consciousness-concomitants" = cittacetasikānaṃ

• "evenly (samaṃ)"
Sama1 [fr. śam: see sammati1] calmness, tranquillity, mental quiet Sn 896. samaŋ carati to become calm, quiescent J iv.172. Cp. ˚cariyā & ˚cārin. http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:3278.pali
Sama3 (adj.) [Vedic sama, fr. sa2; see etym. under saŋ˚] 1. even, level J i.315; iii.172; Mhvs 23, 51. samaŋ karoti to level Dh 178; SnA 66. Opp. visama. -- 2. like, equal, the same D i.123, 174; S i.12; Sn 90, 226, 799, 842; It 17, 64; Dh 306; Miln 4. The compared noun is put in the instr.; or precedes as first part of cpd. <-> 3. impartial, upright, of even mind, just A i.74, 293 sq.; Sn 215, 468, 952. -- 4. sama˚, foll. by numerals, means "altogether,". e. g. ˚tiŋsa thirty altogether Bu 18, 18. -- 5. Cases as adv.: instr. samena with justice, impartially (=dhammena K.S. i.321) Dh 257; J i.180; acc. samaŋ equally D ii.166; together with, at, D ii.288; Mhvs 11, 12. http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:3280.pali

• "rightly (sammā)"
Sammā2 (indecl.) [Vedic samyac (=samyak) & samīś "connected, in one"; see under saŋ˚] thoroughly, properly, rightly; in the right way, as it ought to be, best, perfectly (opp. micchā) D i.12; Vin i.12; Sn 359; 947; Dh 89, 373. Usually as ˚ -- , like sammā -- dhārā even or proper showers (i. e. at the right time) Pv ii.970; especially in connection with constituents of the eightfold Aryan Path, where it is contrasted with micchā; see magga 2 a. (e. g. VbhA 114 sq., 121, 320 sq.). <-> The form sammā is reduced to samma˚ before short vowels (with the insertion of a sandhi -- d -- , cp. puna -- deva), like samma -- d -- eva properly, in harmony or completeness D i.110; Vin i.9: PvA 139, 157; samma -- daññā & ˚akkhāta (see below); and before double consonants arisen from assimilation, like sammag -- gata (=samyak+gata). The cpds. we shall divide into two groups, viz. (A) cpds. with samma˚, (B) with sammā˚. http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:3794.pali

• "a single object" ekārammaṇe
Ārammaṇa (nt.) [cp. Sk. ālambana, lamb, but in meaning confounded with rambh (see rabhati)] primary meaning "foundation", from this applied in the foll. senses: (1) support, help, footing, expedient, anything to be depended upon as a means of achieving what is desired, i. e. basis of operation, chance Sn 1069 (= ālambana, nissaya, upanissaya Nd2 132); Pv i.41 (yaŋ kiñcɔ ārammaṇaŋ katvā); ārammaṇaŋ labhati (+ otāraŋ labhati) to get the chance S ii.268; iv.185. -- (2) condition, ground, cause, means, esp. a cause of desire or clinging to life, pl. ˚ā causes of rebirth (interpreted by taṇhā at Nd1 429), lust Sn 474 (= paccayā SnA 410), 945 (= Nd1 429); KhA 23; DhA i.288 (sappāy˚); PvA 279. -- (3) a basis for the working of the mind & intellect; i. e. sense -- object, object of thought or consciousness, the outward constituent in the relation of subject & object, object in general. In this meaning of "relation" it is closely connected with āyatana (see āyatana3), so that it sometimes takes its place, it is also similar to visaya.   http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.plc.0:1:2897.pali

• "undistracted" avikkhipamānā
Vikkhipatti [Pass. of vikkhipati] to be disturbed J i.400 (gocare, in . . .); Miln 337 (cittaŋ). -- pp. vikkhitta. http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:1365.pali

• "unscattered" avippakiṇṇā
Vippakiṇṇa [pp. of vippakirati] strewn all over, beset with, sprinkled (with) J ii.240; vi.42; DhA i.140; DA i.40; VvA 36. http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:1713.pali

• "non-distraction as its characteristic" avikkhepa-lakkhaṇo
Avikkhepa [a + vikkhepa] calmness, balance, equanimity D iii.213; A i.83; Ps i.94; ii.228; Dhs 11, 15, 570. http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:1:2299.pali

Vikkhepa [vi+khepa] 1. disturbance, derangement J vi.139. -- 2. perplexity, confusion D i.59. -- vācā˚ equivocation, senseless talk D i.24. -- 3. in citta˚ & cetaso v. upset of mind, unbalanced mind, mental derangement: citta˚ S i.126; Pug 69; cetaso A iii.448; Dhs 429; Vbh 373. -- avikkhepa equanimity, balance D iii.213; A i.83; Ps i.94; Dhs 160, 430; Vbh 178 sq., 231 sq., 266 sq., 279 sq., 285 sq. http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:1368.pali

• "Its function is to eliminate distraction" vikkhepa-viddhaṃsanaraso
Viddhaŋsana (adj. -- nt.) [fr. viddhaŋseti; cp. BSk. vidhvaŋ- sana Divy 180] shattering, destruction (trs. & intrs.), undoing, making disappear; adj. destroying S iv.83; Miln 351 (kosajja˚); J i.322; v.267 (adj.); Vism 85 (vikkhepa+); VvA 58, 161 (adj.). -- Often in phrase (denoting complete destruction): anicc -- ucchādana -- parimaddana -- bhedana -- viddhaŋsana -- dhamma, e. g. D i.76; M i.500; A iv.386; J i.146 [cp. Divy 180: śatanapatana -- vikiraṇa -- vidhvaŋsana -- dharmatā; see also under vikiraṇa]. http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:1561.pali

• "It is manifested as non-wavering" avikampana-paccupaṭṭhāno
Avikampin (adj.) [fr. a + vi + kamp] unmoved, not shaking, steady Vv 5022 (= acala VvA 215). http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:1:2297.pali
Avikampamāna (adj.) [a + vi + kampamāna, ppr. med. of kamp] not hesitating, not wavering, not doubting J iv.310 (= anosakkamāna C.; Kern takes it at this passage as a + vikalpamāna, see Toev. s.v., but unnecessarily); vi.176 (= nirāsanka C.); J vi.273. http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:1:2296.pali
Vikampati [vi+kamp] to shake; fig. to be unsettled, to waver, to be in doubt S iv.71 (cittaŋ na vikampate); Th 1, 1076 (vidhāsu na v.; trsln Brethren p. 366: "who is not exercised about himself in this way or in that"); Nd1 195 (tīsu vidhāsu, as at Th 1, 1076; as comment on Sn 843); J vi.488. -- ppr. med. vikampamāna, only neg. a˚ not hesitating, settled, well balanced, resolved Sn 842; J iv.310; v.495 (C. anolīyamāna); vi.175 (C. nirāsanka). -- pp. vikampita. http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:1304.pali

Paccupaṭṭhāna (nt.) [fr. paṭi+upa+sthā; cp. Cpd. 13 & Lakkhaṇa] 1. (re)appearance, happening, coming on, phenomenon J iii.524; Nett 28; SnA 509; DhsA 332; ThA 288. 2. tending D iii.191. 3. vv. ll. gilānupaṭṭhāna. http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:914.pali

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272215СообщениеДобавлено: Вт 08 Мар 16, 01:32 (2 года тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Thanks for such a brick-to-brick explanation of right concentration. This is really the most important thing. In practice, I can recall there is one more characteistiс - the all encompacity, absorbation, which serves as dynamic basis for it and the wonderful power. May we call it the bliss of non-wavering concentration...
No matter what is Real, the matter is what is Right
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272346СообщениеДобавлено: Вс 13 Мар 16, 12:21 (2 года тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Asanga пишет в Abhidharmasamuccaya:

5. What is memory (smṛti)? It is not forgetting the thought (cetas) concerning the object experienced37. Its function is non-distraction.

6. What is concentration (samādhi)? It is the one-pontedness of the mind (cittasyaikāgratā) on the object to be examined. Its function is to provide a basis (or support) for knowledge (jñāna).

smṛti katamā| saṃsṛte vastuni cetasaḥ asaṃpramoṣo'vikṣepakarmikā||

samādhiḥ katamaḥ| upaparīkṣye vastuni cittasyaikāgratā| jñānasanniśrayadānakarmakaḥ||

upaparIkS (%{upa-pari-IkS}) A1. to find out , learn Lalit. ; to examine , inquire into.   http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche?dictionary=mwd&prst=exact&st=upaparIkS

vastu 2 n. (for 1. see p. 931 , col. 3) the seat or place of (see %{kapila-} , %{vraNa-v-}) ; any really existing or abiding substance or essence , thing , object , article Ka1v. VarBr2S. Katha1s. &c. (also applied to living beings e.g. S3ak. ii , 7/8) ; (in phil.) the real (opp. to %{a-v-} , `" that which does not really exist , the unreal "' ; %{a-dvitIya-v-} , `" the one real substance or essence which has no second "') IW. 53 n. 1 ; 103 &c. ; the right thing , a valuable or worthy object , object of or for (comp.) Ka1v. ; goods , wealth , property (cf. %{-vinimaya} and %{-hAni}) ; the thing in question matter , affair , circumstance MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; subject , subject-matter , contents , theme (of a speech &c.) , plot (of a drama or poem) Ka1v. Das3ar. Sa1h. &c. ; (in music) a kind of composition Sam2gi1t. ; natural disposition , essential property W. ; the pith or substance of anything W.  http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche?dictionary=mwd&prst=exact&st=vastu

ekAgra mfn. one-pointed , having one point , fixing one's attention upon one point or object , closely attentive , intent , absorbed in MBh. Mn. i , 1 BhP. Bhag. &c. ; undisturbed , unperplexed ; known , celebrated L. ; (%{am}) n. (in math.) the whole of the long side of a figure which is subdivided ; (%{am}) ind. with undivided attention MBh. ; %{-citta} mfn. having the mind intent on one object ; %{-tas} ind. with undivided attention Vet. ; %{-tA} f. %{-tva} n. intentness in the pursuit of one object , close and undisturbed attention ; %{-dRSTi} mfn. fixing one's eyes on one spot Sus3r. ; %{-dhI} mfn. fixing one's mind on one object , closely attentive BhP. ; %{-mati} mfn. id. ; (%{is}) m. N. of a man Lalit. ; %{-manas} mfn. fixing one's mind on one object , closely attentive MBh. Pan5cat. http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche?dictionary=mwd&prst=exact&st=ekAgra

• jñāna-sanniśrayadāna-karmakaḥ ?

karmaka ifc. = %{karman} , work , action &c. (cf. %{a-k-} , %{sa-k-} , &c.) http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche?dictionary=mwd&prst=exact&st=karmaka


Дефиниция самадхи из Йогачарабхуми (цитата и перевод Jowita KRAMER, 2013):

yat parīkṣye vastuni <tatra tatra> tadanugam upanidhyānasaṃniśritaṃ cittaikāgryam

(concentration of the mind on the object to be investigated, which accompanies the [mind and the universal caittas] here and there and which is based on reflection)

parIkSya mfn. = %{-kSitavya} MBh. Var.
parIkSitavya mfn. to be tried or tested or examined or proved Var. Prab.  http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche?dictionary=mwd&maxhits=999&prst=prefix&st=pariks

• upani-dhyāna-saṃniśritaṃ

upanI 1 P. A1. %{-nayati} , %{-te} (A1. Pot. %{-nayIta} HirGr2. i , 1 , 2 ; p. %{-na4yamAna} AV.) to lead or drive near , bring near , bring , adduce , offer RV. ii , 3 , 10 ; iii , 35 , 3 S3Br. TBr. MBh. Mn. Ragh. ; to bring information , communicate ; to lead or bring near to one's self , take possession of R. Katha1s. ; to lead , guide MBh. BhP. ; to lead or draw towards one's self (said of the Guru who , in the ceremony of initiation , draws the boy towards himself) ; to initiate into one of the twice-born classes by investing with the sacred thread &c. (only A1. Pa1n2. 1-3 , 36) AV. xi , 5 , 3 S3Br. A1s3vGr2. S3a1n3khGr2. &c. Mn. &c. ; to bring about , produce , cause Gi1t. Prab. Sa1h. ; to bring into any state , reduce to R. Hariv. Ka1m. &c. ; to take into one's service (only A1. Pa1n2. 1-3 , 36): Caus. %{-nAyayati} , to cause to initiate (a pupil) Mn. xi , 191. [201,2]  
upanI 2 (%{upa-ni-i}) P. %{-ny-eti} , to enter into , move towards S3Br.  http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche?dictionary=mwd&prst=exact&st=upani

saMnizrita mfn. connected with , devoted to DivyA7v. http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche?dictionary=mwd&prst=exact&st=saMnizrita

• cittaikāgryam (т.е. citta-ekAgrya)
ekAgrya mfn. closely attentive L. ; (%{am}) n. close attention L. http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche?dictionary=mwd&prst=exact&st=ekAgrya

Противоположность самадхи - викшепа:

46. What is confused memory, forgetfulness (muṣitasmṛtitā)? It is a memory full of defilements. Its function is to provide a basis for distraction (vikṣepa).

48. What is distraction (vikṣepa)? It is the scattering (visāra) of the mind and it belongs to desire, hatred and delusion. It is divided into natural distraction (svabhāva-vikṣepa), outer distraction (bahirdhā-vikṣepa), inner distraction (adhyātma-vikṣepa), distraction concerning the goal (nimitta-vikṣepa), distraction of excitement (dauṣṭhulya-vikṣepa) and distraction originating from intense attention (manasikāra-vikṣepa). [...] Its function is to counteract detachment (vairāgya).

muṣitasmṛtitā katamā| kleśa saṃprayuktā smṛtiḥ| vikṣepasanniśrayadānakarmikā||

vikṣepaḥ katamaḥ| rāgadveṣamohāṃśikaścetaso visāraḥ| sa punaḥ svabhāvavikṣepaḥ bahirdhāvikṣepaḥ adhyātmavikṣepaḥ nimi(tta) vikṣepaḥ dauṣṭhulyavikṣepaḥ manasikāravikṣepaśca|

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272347СообщениеДобавлено: Вс 13 Мар 16, 14:01 (2 года тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой


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272354СообщениеДобавлено: Вс 13 Мар 16, 18:14 (2 года тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Попутно, Асанга пишет в АС:

What is volition (cetana) [intention]? It is construction by the mind (chittābhisaṃskāra), mental activity (manaskarma). Its function is to direct the mind in the domain of wholesome (kuśala), unwholesome (akuśala) or neutral (avyākṛta) actions.

What is attention (manaskāra)? It is persistence of mind (cetasa ābhogaḥ). Its function is keep the mind (cittadhāraṇa) on the object (ālambana).

Что тут интересного: умственная karma и kāra однокоренные слова, почти синонимы. Ка(а)ра - деятель, делание, поступок, а карма(н) - поступок, дело. Более того, относящаяся к четане chittaabhisaṃskāra включает каара.

• attention (manaskāra)
kara 1 (for 2. see p. 254 , col. 3) mf(%{I} , rarely %{A})n. (1. %{kR}) , a doer , maker , causer , doing , making , causing , producing (esp. ifc. ; cf. %{duHkhakara} , %{bhayaM-k-} , %{sampat-k-} , &c. ; cf. Lat. %{cerus} , `" creator "') AV. xii , 2 , 2 Mn. Pan5cat. &c. ; helping , promoting RV. i , 116 , 13 ; m. the act of doing , making &c. (ifc. ; cf. %{ISatkara} , %{su-k-} , %{duS-k-} , &c.) ; `" the doer "' , the hand RV. x , 67 , 6 MBh. Mn. &c. ; a measure (the breadth of twenty-four thumbs) ; an elephant's trunk MBh. Pan5cat. &c. ; the claws of a crab Hit. ; symbolical expression for the number two ; the lunar mansion Hasta VarBr2S.
kAra 1 mf(%{I})n. (1. %{kR} Pa1n2. 3-2 , 23) , making , doing , working , a maker , doer (ifc. see %{kumbha-k-} , %{yajJa@k-} , %{suvarNa-k-}) ; an author (e.g. %{vArttika-k-}) ; m. (ifc.) an act , action (see %{kAma-k-} , %{puruSa-k-}) ; the term used in designating a letter or sound or indeclinable word (e.g. %{a-k-} , %{ka-k-} , qq. vv. ; %{eva-k-} , the word %{eva} ; %{phUt-k-} q.v.) Pra1t. Mn. &c. ; effort , exertion L. ; determination L. ; religious austerity L. ; a husband , master , lord L. ; (%{as} or %{A}) m. or f. act of worship , song of praise Divya1v. ; (%{I}) f. N. of a plant (= %{kArikA} , %{kAryA} &c.) L.

• mental activity (manaskarma)
karman %{a} n. (%{A} m. L.) , (%{kR} Un2. iv , 144) , act , action , performance , business RV. AV. S3Br. MBh. &c. ; office , special duty , occupation , obligation (frequently ifc. , the first member of the compound being either the person who performs the action [e.g. %{vaNik-k-}] or the person or thing for or towards whom the action is performed [e.g. %{rAja-k-} , %{pazu-k-}] or a specification of the action [e.g. %{zaurya-k-} , %{prIti-k-}]) S3Br. Mn. Bhartr2. &c. ; any religious act or rite (as sacrifice , oblation &c. , esp. as originating in the hope of future recompense and as opposed to speculative religion or knowledge of spirit) RV. AV. VS. Ragh. &c. ; work , labour , activity (as opposed to rest , %{prazAnti}) Hit. RPra1t. &c. ; physicking , medical attendance Car. ; action consisting in motion (as the third among the seven categories of the Nya1ya philosophy ; of these motions there are five , viz. %{ut-kSepaNa} , %{ava-kSepaNa} , %{A-kuJcana} , %{prasAraNa} , and %{gamana} , qq. vv.) Bha1sha1p. Tarkas. ; calculation Su1ryas. ; product , result , effect Mn. xii , 98 Sus3r. ; organ of sense S3Br. xiv (or of action see %{karme7ndriya}) ; (in Gr.) the object (it stands either in the acc. [in active construction] , or in the nom. [in passive construction] , or in the gen. [in connection with a noun of action] ; opposed to %{kartR} the subject) Pa1n2. 1-4 , 49 ff. (it is of four kinds , viz. a. %{nirvartya} , when anything new is produced e.g. %{kaTaM@karoti} , `" he makes a mat "' [258,3] ; %{putraM@prasUte} , `" she bears a son "' ; b. %{vikArya} , when change is implied either of the substance and form e.g. %{kASThaM@bhasma@karoti} , `" he reduces fuel to ashes "' ; or of the form only e.g. %{suvarNaM@kuNDalaM@karoti} , `" he fashions gold into an ear-ring "' ; c. %{prApya} , when any desired object is attained e.g. %{grAmaM@gacchati} , `" he goes to the village "' ; %{candraM@pazyati} , `" he sees the moon "' ; d. %{anIpsita} , when an undesired object is abandoned e.g. %{pApaM@tyajati} , `" he leaves the wicked "') ; former act as leading to inevitable results , fate (as the certain consequence of acts in a previous life) Pan5cat. Hit. Buddh. , (cf. %{karma-pAka} and %{-vipAka}) ; the tenth lunar mansion VarBr2S. &c.
karma (in comp. for %{ka4rman} above).
kArma 1 mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{ka4rman} ; g. %{chattrA7di}) , active , laborious Pa1n2. 6-4 , 172.  

• construction by the mind (chittābhisaṃskāra)
abhi ind. (a prefix to verbs and nouns , expressing) to , towards , into , over , upon. (As a prefix to verbs of motion) it expresses the notion or going towards , approaching , &c. (As a prefix to nouns not derived from verbs) it expresses superiority , intensity , &c. ; e.g. %{abhi-tAmra} , %{abhi-nava} q.v. (As a separate adverb or preposition) it expresses (with acc.) to , towards , in the direction of , against ; into S3Br. and Ka1tyS3r. ; for , for the sake of ; on account of ; on , upon , with regard to , by , before , in front of ; over. It may even express one after the other , severally Pa1n2. 1-4 , 91 e.g. %{vRkSaM@vRkSam@abhi} , tree after tree [cf. Gk. $ ; Lat. {ob} ; Zend &18820[61 ,1] {aibi} , {aiwi} ; Goth. {bi} ; Old High Germ. {bi1}].  
saM (in comp.) = 2. %{sam} q.v.  
sam 2 ind. (connected with 7. %{sa} and 2. %{sama} , and opp. to 3. %{vi} q.v.) with , together with , along with , together , altogether (used as a preposition or prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives , like Gk. $ , &348389[1152 ,1] Lat. {con} , and expressing `" conjunction "' , `" union "' , `" thoroughness "' , `" intensity "' , `" completeness "' e.g. %{saMyuj} , `" to join together "' ; %{saM-dhA} , `" to place together "' ; %{saM-dhi} , `" placing together "' ; %{saM-tap} , `" to consume utterly by burning "' ; %{sam-uccheda} , `" destroying altogether , complete destruction "' ; in Ved. the verb connected with it has sometimes to be supplied , e.g. %{A4po@agni4m@yaza4saH@sa4M@hi4@pUrvI4ih} , `" for many glorious waters surrounded Agni "' ; it is sometimes prefixed to nouns in the sense of 2. %{sama} , `" same "' ; cf. %{samartha}) RV. &c. &c.  
abhisaMskAra m. `" the being formed "' , development (as of seeds) Car. ; preparation ib. ; conception , idea Buddh.  
saMskAra m. (ifc. f. %{A}) putting together , forming well , making perfect , accomplishment , embellishment adornment , purification , cleansing , making ready , preparation , dressing (of food) , refining (of metals) , polishing (of gems) , rearing (of animals or plants) Gr2S3rS. MBh. Ka1v. , &c. ; cleansing the body , toilet , attire Hariv. ; forming the mind , training , education R. Ragh. ; correction (also in an astronomical sense Su1ryas.) , correct formation or use of a word Nir. Sarvad. ; correctness , purity (esp. of pronunciation or expression) MBh. R. &c. ; making sacred , hallowing , consecration Mn. MBh. &c. ; a sacred or sanctifying ceremony , one which purifies from the taint of sin contracted in the , womb and leading to regeneration (12 such ceremonies are enjoined on the first three or twice-born classes in Mn. ii , 27 , viz. 1. %{garbhA7dhAna} , 2. %{puM-savana} , 3. %{sImanto7nnayana} , 4. %{jAta-karman} , 5. %{nAmakarman} , 6. %{niSkramaNa} , 7. %{anna-prA7zana} , 8. %{cUDA-karman} , 9. %{upanayana} , 10. %{kezA7nta} , 11. %{samAvartana} , 12. %{vivAha} , qq. vv. ; accord. to Gaut. viii , 8 &c. there are 40 Sam2ska1ras) Gr2S. Mn. MBh. &c. (IW.188 ; 192 &c. RTL. 353) [1120,3] ; the ceremony performed on a dead body (i.e. cremation) R. ; any purificatory ceremony W. ; the faculty of memory , mental impression or recollection , impression on the mind of acts done in a former state of existence (one of the 24 qualities of the Vais3eshikas , including %{bhAvanA} , the faculty of reproductive imagination "') Kan2. Sarvad. (IW. 69) ; (pl. , with Buddhists) a mental conformation or creation of the mind (such as that of the external world , regarded by it as real , though actually non-existent , and forming the second link in the twelvefold chain of causation or the fourth of the 5 Skandhas) Dharmas. 22 ; 42 ; a polishing stone MW.

•  persistence of mind (cetasa ābhogaḥ)
Abhoga 1 m. winding , curving , curve , crease MBh. R. &c. ; a serpent RV. vii , 94 , 12 ; the expanded hood of the Cobra Capella (used by Varun2a as his umbrella) MBh. Hcar. ; circuit , circumference , environs , extension , fulness , expanse S3ak. Bhartr2. &c. ; variety , multifariousness Bhartr2. ; effort , pains L. ; (for 2. %{A-bhoga} see s.v.)
Abhoga 2 m. (2. %{bhuj}) , enjoyment , satiety , fulness , completion L. ; N. of wk. ; (mfn.) ifc. enjoying , eating TA1r. ; (for 1. %{A-bhoga} see %{A-} 1. %{bhuj}.)  
Некоторые переводят ābhoga как effort, а saṃskāra и abhisaṃskāra как синонимы. Стоит отметить, что saṃ- зачастую незначительный префикс, и пары ведана и самведана, четана и самчетана, кальпа и самкальпа - обычно полные синонимы.

• keep the mind (cittadhāraṇa) on
dhAra 1 mf(%{I})n. ( %{dhR}) holding , supporting , containing (ifc. ; cf. %{karNa-} , %{chattra-} , %{tulA-} &c.) ; m. N. of Vishn2u L. ; debt L
dhara mf(%{A})n. ( %{dhR}) bearing , supporting (scil. the world , said of Kr2ishn2a and S3iva) MBh. ; ifc. holding , bearing , carrying , wearing , possessing , having , keeping (also in memory) , sustaining , preserving , observing (cf. %{aMzu-} , %{akSa-} , %{kulaM-} &c.) MBh. R. &c. ; m. a mountain Kir. xv , 12 (cf. %{kSiti-} , %{bhU-} &c.) ; a flock of cotton L. ; a frivolous or dissolute man (= %{viTa}) L. ; a sword Gal. ; N. of a Vasu MBh. ; of a follower of the Pa1n2d2avas ib. of the king of the tortoises L. ; of the father of Padma-prabha (6th Arhat of pres. Ava-sarpin2i1) L. ; (%{A}) f. `" bearer , supporter "' , the earth Mn. MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; the uterus or womb Bhpr. ; a vein or tubular vessel of the body L. ; marrow L. ; a mass of gold or heap of valuables (representing the earth and given to Bra1hmans) W. ; one of the 8 forms of Sarasvati1 id. ; N. of one of the wives of Kas3yapa (mother of the land and water-birds , prob. = the Earth) Hariv. 232 (v.l. %{irA}) ; n. poison L. (v.l. %{dara})

• the object (ālambana)
Alambana n. depending on or resting upon ; hanging from Pa1n2. ; supporting , sustaining Megh. ; foundation , base Prab. Kat2hUp. ; reason , cause ; (in rhetoric) the natural and necessary connection of a sensation with the cause which excites it Sa1h. ; the mental exercise practised by the Yogin in endeavouring to realize the gross form of the Eternal VP. ; silent repetition of a prayer [W.] ; (with Buddhists) the five attributes of things (apprehended by or connected with the five senses , viz. form , sound , smell , taste , and touch ; also %{dharma} or law belonging to %{manas}).
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