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Это как раз то, что вы ищете, Вадим. В нашей стране, кажется, нет представительств серьезных организаций деятельного буддизма, в отличие от деятельного христианства: орден сестер милосердия матери Терезы, например, функционирует во многих российских городах.
Engaged Buddhism or socially engaged Buddhism is a
relatively new Buddhist movement that emphasizes social
service and nonviolent activism. Since the midtwentieth
century Buddhist organizations in Asia and
the West have drawn upon traditional teachings and
practices—such as the PRECEPTS against harming,
stealing, and lying; the virtues of kindness and compassion;
the principles of selflessness and interdependence;
the vow to save all beings; and practices of
MEDITATION and skillful means—to protect humans
and other beings from injury and suffering. Their concerns
include stopping war, promoting human rights,
ministering to the victims of disease and disaster, and
safeguarding the natural environment.
Two engaged Buddhists have won the Nobel Prize
for peace: Bstan ‘dzin rgya mtsho (pronounced Tenzin
Gyatso), the fourteenth DALAI LAMA of Tibet, was
awarded the prize in 1989, and Aung San Suu Kyi, the
opposition leader in Burma (Myanmar), won it in
1991. Other leaders of the movement are the Vietnamese
monk and poet, THICH NHAT HANH, who
coined the term engaged Buddhism in the 1960s; the
late Indian untouchable activist and statesman, B. R.
AMBEDKAR; the Thai activist and writer, Sulak
Sivaraksa; the Taiwanese nun who founded hospitals
and international relief missions, Ven. Shih Chengyen;
and American teachers Robert Aitken, Joanna
Macy, Bernard Glassman, John Daido Loori, Joan Halifax,
and Paula Green.
Engaged Buddhist organizations have appeared
throughout the world. South and Southeast Asia are
home to the International Network of Engaged Buddhists,
based in Thailand; the Trilokya Bauddha Maha
san? gha Sahayaka Gana, which serves Dalit (low-caste)
communities in India; the Dhammayietra peace walk
movement in Cambodia, founded by Ven. Maha
Ghosananda; and the Sarvodaya Shramadana rural development
movement, which serves more than eleven
thousand villages in Sri Lanka.
East Asia hosts a number of local organizations,
such as the Buddhist Coalition for Economic Justice
and the environmentalist Cho?ngt’o Society in South
Korea; international peace organizations, such as the
Japan-based, Nichiren-inspired Rissho Kosekai, Soka
Gakkai International (SGI), and Nipponzan Myohoji,
known for peace walks and “peace pagodas”; and the
Buddhist Compassionate Relief Tz’u-chi Association
of Taiwan, with its hospitals, rescue teams, and bonemarrow
donation program. The West also has its share
of engaged Buddhists organizations, including the
Buddhist Peace Fellowship and the Zen Peacemaker
Community, based in the United States; the An? gulima
la Prison Ministry in Britain; the Free Tibet movement,
based in New York and Washington, D.C.; and
numerous other peace, justice, and service groups in
North America, Europe, Australia, and South Africa.
Practitioners and scholars of engaged Buddhism do
not agree on its origins. Some argue that social service
has appeared in the Buddhist record since the time of
the Buddha and King AS? OKA, before the common era,
and increasingly since the rise of the BODHISATTVA
ethic of MAHAYANA Buddhism in the centuries that
followed. Scattered examples of SAN? GHA-based public
service and of tension between san? gha and state have
been attested by historians of Asian Buddhism. Others
hold that Buddhist activism—particularly collective
protest of state corruption, economic injustice,
and human rights violations—is unprecedented in
Buddhism prior to the twentieth century, and reflects
the globalization and hybridization of Asian, European,
and American values.
Engaged Buddhism offers new perspectives on traditional
teachings. Among these is the belief that human
beings can overcome DUHKHA (SUFFERING). The
FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, an ancient formulation, defines
suffering as the psychological discomfort associated
with craving for objects or experiences that are impermanent
and insubstantial. The cessation of personal
suffering is sought by adopting prescribed views,
aspirations, actions, speech, vocations, effort, mindfulness,
and concentration. The tradition also attributes
a person’s life circumstances to patterns of
motivation and behavior in previous lives, through the
universal laws of KARMA (ACTION) and REBIRTH.
Most engaged Buddhists accept these ideas, but
stress causes of suffering they believe to be external to
the sufferer and collective in nature. The Dalit Buddhists
of India believe that caste-group suffering is
caused by entrenched social interests that restrict their
social mobility, economic opportunity, and political
influence. The Buddhists of Southeast Asia, Tibet, and
Sri Lanka know that invading armies and local insurgents
cause collective suffering—loss of life, livelihood,
and homeland. Those afflicted by epidemics and natural
disasters recognize the social and natural conditions
that cause their sufferings. Thus, for engaged
Buddhism, there are true victims who suffer the effects
of others’ hatred, greed, and delusion, and of impersonal
forces beyond their control.
In response to such external causes of suffering, engaged
Buddhists typically adopt practices of social service
and nonviolent struggle as “skillful means” on the
path to liberation. Ambedkar called this Navayana
(New Vehicle) Buddhism, alluding to the traditional
yanas (vehicles) of Buddhist historiography.
See also: Ethics; Karuna (Compassion); Modernity and
Chappell, David W., ed. Buddhist Peacework: Creating Cultures
of Peace. Somerville, MA: Wisdom, 1999.
Kraft, Kenneth, ed. Inner Peace, World Peace: Essays on Buddhism
and Nonviolence. Albany: State University of New
York Press, 1992.
Queen, Christopher S., ed. Engaged Buddhism in the West.
Somerville, MA: Wisdom, 2000.
Queen, Christopher S., and King, Sallie B., eds. Engaged Buddhism:
Buddhist Liberation Movements in Asia. Albany: State
University of New York Press, 1996.
Queen, Christopher; Prebish, Charles; and Keown, Damien; eds.
Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. London:
Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and Williams, Duncan Ryuken, eds. Buddhism
and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.
CHRISTOPHER S. QUEEN _________________ поговорим в аду
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