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The three gateways to liberation


 
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一心


: 18.02.2005
: 18026

42410: 09 07, 02:22 (9 )    The three gateways to liberation

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The three gateways to liberation


Finally, in this chapter I would like to consider a passage from the Nettippakaraṇa which suggests that certain hindrances, connected with wrong-views, are overcome by one of three gateways to liberation (tīhi vimokkhamukhehi). This discussion aims to show how the process of achieving a state free from craving and attachment is realised. The passages that I will discuss consider in some detail exactly which hindrances are associated with various forms of craving and which practices overcome them. The three gateways are:

The dispositionless gateway to liberation (appaṇihitam vimokkhamukhaṃ)
The emptiness gateway to liberation (suññatā vimokkhamukhaṃ)
The signless gateway to liberation (animittaṃ vimokkhamukhaṃ, Nett 123).

These categories suggest how different hindrances are overcome by different practices. There appears to be some connection between these gateways and the four satipaṭṭhānas.194 There is an emphasis in this analysis on emptiness overcoming corruptions based upon views. There is also an analysis of different temperaments that are defiled in different ways, requiring different practices to overcome these defilements.

Chapter 3 of the Nettippakaraṇa is called the Moulding of the Guidelines (Nayasamuṭṭhānaṃ). It begins by suggesting how ignorance is a hindrance (nīvarana) and craving is a fetter (saṃyojana). The exposition is an attempt to show how those of different temperaments have different hindrances which are predominant, and so have different ways to reach their goal. Those in whom ignorance is predominant are called those of view-temperament (diṭṭhi-carita). Those in whom craving is predominant are called those of craving-temperament (taṇhā-caritā, Nett 109). On one level, those of view-temperament practise selftorment, and those of craving-temperament are devoted to the pursuit of sensual pleasures (Nett 110); insight and calm overcome these. In another sense, those of view-temperament approach each of the khandhas as self, and those of cravingtemperament approach self as possessing each of the khandhas, or the khandhas as in self, or the self as in the khandhas (i.e. sakkāya-diṭṭhi, Nett 111). The supramundane (lokuttarā) eightfold path (encapsulating calm and insight), disconnected from worlds, is opposed to this.195 We have again two ways of apprehending the world: the first based upon craving and attachment, the second on indifference and non-attachment. It is interesting that the distinction is made between view and craving-temperament. Though ignorance is predominant in those of viewtemperament I do not take this as suggesting that ignorance is more of a hindrance in those of view-temperament than in those of craving-temperament. As I understand this, the term view-temperament applies to the craving of the mind. The Nettippakaraṇa is making the distinction between those who crave sensual pleasures and those who crave mental objects.

The Nettippakaraṇa goes on to consider these two ways of seeing in some detail. It analyses ten sets of defilements (kilesā) and considers whether they occur in a person of craving-temperament (taṇhā-carita), or view-temperament (diṭṭhi-carita). It then further refines its analysis by suggesting that these defilements occur in persons of lusting-temperament (rāga-caritassa), hatingtemperament (dosa-caritassa), dull-view-temperament (diṭṭhi-caritassa mandassa), or intelligent-view-temperament (diṭṭhi-caritassa udatthassa). The meaning of these two latter categories will become clear. Finally, the means of overcoming these defilements is given, whether that be by the dispositionless, emptiness, or the signless gateway to liberation. The defilements analysed fall into ten groups of four:

four nutriments (cattāro āhārā)
four perversions (cattāro vipallāsa)
four attachments (cattāri upādānāni)
four bonds (cattāro yoga)
four ties (cattāro ganthā)
four corruptions (cattāro āsava)
four floods (cattāro oghā)
four barbs (catatāro sallā)
four steadying points for consciousness (catasso viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo)
four goings on bad ways (cattāri agatigamanāni, Nett 114).

The first distinction made is to classify these defilement as to whether they are defilements of a person of craving-temperament or view-temperament. This is done in the following way: the first two nutriments, perversions, attachments, etc. are imperfections in a person of craving temperament:

Defilements in a person of craving-temperament (taṇhā-caritassa puggalassa upakkilesā, Nett 11415)

physical nutriment (kabaḷiṃkāro āhāro), nutriment as contact (phasso āhāro);
perversion that there is beauty in the ugly (asubhe subhan ti vipallāso), perversion that there is pleasure in the painful (dukkhe sukhan ti vipallāso);
attachment to sensual desire (kāmupādānaṃ), and attachment to becoming (bhavupādānaṃ);
bond of sensual desire (kāmayogo), bond of becoming (bhavayogo);
bodily tie of covetousness (abhijjhā-kāyagantho), bodily tie of ill-will (byāpādo kāyagantho);
corruption of sensual desire (kāmāsavo), corruption of becoming (bhavāsavo);
flood of sensual desire (kāmogho), flood of becoming (bhavogho);
barb of lust (rāgasallo), barb of hate (dosasallo)', form as a steadying point for consciousness passing on (rūpūpagā viññānatthiti) feeling as a steadying point for consciousness passing on (vedanūpagā viññānatthiti), going on a bad way through will (chandā agatigamanam) going on a bad way though hate (dosā agatigamanam).

Defilements in a person of view-tempemment (diṭṭhi-caritassa puggalassa upakkilesā, Nett 11415)

nutriment as mind-choice (manosañcetanāhāro), nutriment as consciousness (viññānāhāro);
perversion that there is permanence in the impermanent (anicce niccan ti vipallāso), perversion that there is self in the not-self (anattani attā ti vipallāso);
attachment to view (ditthūpādānam), attachment to the doctrine of self (attavādupādānam);
bond of views (ditthi-yogo), bond of ignorance (avijjāyogo);
bodily tie of clinging [to precepts and vows]' (parāmāsa-kāya-gantho), bodily tie of adherence to truth (saccābhinivesa-kāya-gantho);
corruption of views (ditthāsavo), corruption of ignorance (avijjāsavo);
flood of views (ditthogho), flood of ignorance (avijjogho);
barb of conceit (mānasallo), barb of delusion (mohasallo);196
apperception as steadying point for consciousness (saññūpagā viññānatthiti), volitional formations as a steadying point for consciousness (samkhārūpagā viññānattiti)', going in a bad way through fear (bhayā agatigamanam) going in a bad way through delusion (mohā agatigamanam).

The text appears to be suggesting the simple distinction between what are, in the main, attachments to sense objects, and what are forms of attachment to mental objects. There are, though, as I have said, four further categories. The text introduces the categories of a person of lusting-temperament (rāga-caritassa), a person of hating-temperament (dosa-caritassa), a person of dull-view temperament (ditthi-caritassa mandassa), and a person of intelligent-view-temperament (ditthicaritassa udatthassa), and analyses which defilements apply to each category. The text takes the first nutriment, perversion, attachment, bond, tie, āsava, flood, barb, steadying point for consciousness and going in a bad way, stating that these are all imperfections in a person of lusting-temperament (ime rāgacaritassa puggalassa upakkilesā, Nett 117). The same procedure is carried out for the other temperaments. Hence the second nutriment, perversion, etc. are imperfections in a person of hating-temperament.197 The third nutriment, perversion, etc. are imperfections in a person of dull-view-temperament.198 The fourth nutriment, perversion, etc. are imperfections in a person of intelligent-view-temperament.199

The text makes one final classification of these defilements, and that is the means to overcome them. This time the classification is three-fold and follows the three gateways to liberation (tīhi vimokkhamukhehi, Nett 119), by which they are overcome. The first two nutriments, perversions, attachments, bonds, etc. are understood as being overcome through the dispositionless gateway to liberation.200 The third nutriment, perversion, attachment, bond, etc. are understood as being overcome through emptiness.201 The fourth nutriment, perversion, attachment, bond, etc. are understood as being overcome through the signless.202

It is interesting to consider the distinctions the text is making here, particularly in the last two categories. One clue as to the reasons for these distinctions may be found a little earlier in the text. Of the one steady in the third perversion, that there is permanence in the impermanent ,203 it is said that this person, assumes the view that has expectant affection for the round [of existences], and this is attachment to views.204 This person is fettered by a destructive view, through being attached to view, and this is the bond of views.205 On the other hand, for one steady in the fourth perversion, that there is self in the not-self,206 having supposed a self, is attached,207 and this person is fettered by ignorance through attachment to the doctrine of self, and this is called the bond of ignorance.208 The text is explaining various degrees of attachment to acts of cognition. It has explained that all these defilements occur in a person of view-temperament, but is now making the distinction between a dull-view, or one of dull-view-temperament, and an intelligent-view, or one of intelligent-view-temperament. It is tempting to suggest that the former view is held with a greater degree of attachment than the latter. In a sense the person of dull-view-temperament craves and is ignorant. Those of intelligent-view-temperament are only ignorant. Further, we must remember that for the Theravādins, after stream-attainment there are no more wrong-views, but, as we have seen, right-view still has a function. I would suggest that the role of right-view could be its very function in destroying, or keeping in check, attachment to any form of insight (cf. the discussion of the Paṭṭhāna). The stream-attainer is not attached to views, but still has a degree of ignorance.

The Nettippakaraṇa then explains what the three gateways to liberation (tīhi vimokkhamukhehi) consist of. It uses another group of ten categories, each consisting of four items. This is a positive counterpart of what went before (i.e. the four nutriments, perversions etc.) but expressed as the wholesome alternative of the negative dhammas that follow the worlds round (lokavaṭṭānūsārino dhamma, Nett 119); these ideas follow the worlds stopping (lokavivaṭṭānusārī, Nett 113).

These 40 ideas are the:

four ways (catasso patipadā)
four foundations of mindfulness (cattāro satipaṭṭhānā)210
four meditations (cattāri jhānāni)
four abidings (cattāro vihārā)211
four right-endeavours (cattāro sammappadhānā)212
four wonderful, marvellous ideas (cattāro acchariyā abbhūtā dhammā)213
four expressions (cattārī adhiṭṭhānāni)214
four ways of keeping concentration in being (catasso samādhibhāvanā)215
four ideas dealing with pleasure (cattāro sukhabhāgiyā dhammā)216
four measureless states (catasso appamāṇā)217

The dispositionless gateway to liberation consists of the first and second ways, foundations of mindfulness, meditations, abidings, etc.218 The former, the first way, etc. is also called medicine for a person of lusting-temperament (rāgacaritassa puggalassa bhesajjaṃ), and the second way, etc. medicine for a person of hating-temperament (dosacaritassa puggalassa bhesajjaṃ, Nett 122). The emptiness gateway to liberation is the third way, foundation of mindfulness, meditation, abiding, etc.219 These are also medicine for a person of dull-viewtemperament (diṭṭhi-caritassa mandassa puggalassa bhesajjaṃ, Nett 122). The signless gateway to liberation consists of the fourth way, foundation of mindfulness, meditation, abiding, etc.220 These are also said to be the medicine for a person of intelligent-view-temperament (diṭṭhi-caritassa mandassa puggalassa bhesajjaṃ, Nett 122).221 Clearly, in this exposition, the person of view-temperament is described more precisely, and the overcoming of the defilements in a person of viewtemperament can be overcome by the emptiness or the signless gateway to liberation.222

The Nettippakaraṇa is describing, I think, how different defilements are overcome by different methods. There appears to be some connection between not-self, right-view and emptiness. Buddhaghosa equates these notions by citing the Paṭisambhidāmagga: When one who has great wisdom brings [volitional formations] to mind as not-self, he acquires the emptiness liberation.223 As I have already said, it is tempting to understand sammā-diṭṭhi as a way of seeing that incorporates the notion of śūnyatā (emptiness) in other parts of Buddhist thought. In later Buddhist thought there is the connection between paṭicca-samuppāda and śūnyatā. Emptiness is equated with paṭicca-samuppāda.224 In a well-known Saṃyutta passage, the Buddha refuses to assert whether there is or is not a self precisely because this would give the mind an object of attachment in the form of permanence or impermanence.225 The dhamma is an empty doctrine in the sense that attachment to it is wrong-view. Knowledge of the dhamma must not produce craving and this is the function and significance, in fact one of the meanings of the term sammā-diṭṭhi. The dhamma, by definition, cannot be a view. In the same way, sammā-diṭṭhi requires, ultimately, the destruction of all views and is empty of content in the sense of not producing craving and attachment. In this way it is the emptiness gateway to liberation.
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一心


: 18.02.2005
: 18026

42444: 09 07, 20:16 (9 )    

, -, .

Nettippakaraṇa 'cattāri upādānāni' attachment to sensual desire (kāmupādānaṃ), and attachment to becoming (bhavupādānaṃ), attachment to view (ditthūpādānam), attachment to the doctrine of self (attavādupādānam), Abhidharmasamuccaya grasping (upādāna) is fourfold, namely, the graspings of (i) the sense pleasures (kāmopādāna), (ii) wrong views (dṛṣtyupādāna), (iii) observances and rituals (śīlavratopādāna) and (iv) the theory of self (ātmavādopādāna).

yoga, ogha . grantha . asava Nett 4 3. .




: 05.04.2005
: 2461

43082: 21 07, 01:19 (9 )    

D. Lusthaus

:
The version that seems to have most interested later Theravadins is the one where emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness occur after 'cessation.' Majj. #44 gives the basic formula. When asked, What does one encounter (phassa, lit. 'sensory contact') upon emerging from 'cognitive and sensory cessation,' the nun Dhammadinna (considered best of the Dhamma-teachers amongst the nuns) replies: ... when a monk has emerged from the attainment of 'cognitive and sensory cessation' three 'contacts' confront him: contact that is empty, contact that is signless, and contact that is wishless.

Samyutta Nikaya VI.737 explains two of them:
[Q] What, sir, is the liberation of mind (ceto-vimutti) by emptiness?
[A] Herein, sir, a brother goes to the forest or the root of a tree or a lonely spot, and thus reflects: "Empty is this of self or of what pertains to self." This, sir, is called 'liberation of mind by emptiness.'
[Q] And what, sir, is the liberation of mind that is signless?
[A] Herein, sir, a brother, without thought (sanna) of all signs, reaches and abides in that tranquility of mind that is signless. This, sir, is called 'liberation of mind by the signless.'


Buddhaghosa glosses the three as arising from three different objects of meditation, namely the three marks of all conditioned things: impermanence, dukkha, and selflessness. Hence, concentration on impermanence leads to signless liberation {animitta-vimokkha), concentration on dukkha leads to wishless liberation (appanihita-vimokkha), and concentration on no-self leads to emptiness liberation (sunnata-vimokkha). The Nikayas, however, are not so orderly
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一心


: 18.02.2005
: 18026

43143: 22 07, 11:54 (9 )    

:
The Nikayas, however, are not so orderly
, ? 40 ideas .
test
一心


: 18.02.2005
: 18026

45995: 21 07, 20:19 (9 )    

Venerable Narada Maha Thera, :
:
60. Sunnata - Devoid of lust, hatred, and ignorance, or of all conditioned things. Void here does not mean that Nibbaana is 'nothingness'.

61. Animitta - Free from the signs of lust etc., or from the signs of all conditioned things.

62. Appanihita - Free from the hankerings of lust etc., or because it is not longed for with any feelings of craving.







249199: 30 15, 08:34 (1 )    

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: 26.07.2013
: 237

249461: 01 15, 13:08 (1 )    

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Nowhere.Man


: 10.09.2010
: 9559

249627: 01 15, 22:22 (1 )    

sunnata = nibbana
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: 14.07.2006
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