№42235Добавлено: Пт 05 Окт 07, 13:20 (15 лет тому назад)
Очень интересно, что имел в виду Будда. Надеюсь, что удастся этот интерес удовлетворять и дальше.
Приведенный список это иллюстрация имеющегося сейчас понимания. Буду благодарен за разъяснения ошибок. _________________ Решительность и усердие (шила) в невозмутимом (самадхи) исследовании (праджня) корней всех беспокойств ума.
№42401Добавлено: Пн 08 Окт 07, 22:28 (15 лет тому назад)
How should it be understood by the grouping of its factors?
There are projecting factors (ākṣepakāṅga), projected factors (ākṣiptāṅga), producer factors (abhinirvartakāṅga) and produced factors (abhinirvṛttaṅga).
• Which are the projecting factors? Ignorance, the formations and consciousness.
• Which are the projected factors? Name and form, the six spheres, contact and sensation.
• Which are the producer factors? Thirst, grasping and becoming.
• Which are the produced factors? Birth and old age and death.
(13) The reason of projection (ākṣepakārana) which is a distant condition (vidūraḥ pratyaya), such as ignorance (avidyā) for old age and death (jarāmaraṇa).
(14) The producing reason (abhinirvṛttikārana) which is an immediate reason, such as ignorance for the formations (saṃskāra).
№42404Добавлено: Пн 08 Окт 07, 23:13 (15 лет тому назад)
Попробую составить список матрик участвующих в пратитьясамутпада.
a) Not knowing suffering, not knowing the origin of suffering, not knowing the cessation of suffering, not knowing the way leading to the cessation of suffering.
b) What is ignorance (avidyā)? It is the absence of knowledge (ajñāna) in regard to the three realms of existence (traidhātuka). Its function is to provide a basis for the appearance of the defilements, erroneous decisions and doubts concerning the teachings (dharma).
c) What is the function of ignorance? It deludes beings in regard to existence (bhava) and is also the condition for the formations.
d) What is the fetter of ignorance (avidyā-saṃyojana)? It is ignorance in regard to the three realms. The person who is fettererd by ignorance does not understand suffering and its origin. Not understanding, he performs unwholesome actions and does not perform wholesome actions. Thus, producing future suffering, he is fettered by suffering.
e) (avidyaugha, avidyāyoga) ... pursuit of a false holy life.
f) The outflow of the sense pleasures (kāmāsrava) is due to outer distraction; the outflows of existence (bhavāsrava) and becoming are due to inner distraction; the outflow of ignorance (avidyāsarava) is due to both of these two distractions.
g) Ignorance (avidyā) depraves the mind everywhere.
h) Ignorance (avidyā) is twofold, related and pure. Since it is associated with all the defilements, associated ignorance is related according to the feelings. Pure ignorance is associated with grief and equanimity in the realm of the sense pleasures. In the higher realms, it is related according to the feelings.
i) The sūtra says: ‘Meritorious, demeritorious and unchanging (puṇya, apuṇya, āniñjya) actions are the formations (saṃskāra) conditioned by ignorance (avidyā).’ Why are meritorious and unchanging actions called formations conditioned by ignorance? Ignorance is twofold: (i) ignorance of results (vipāka-avidyā) and (ii) ignorance of reality (tattvārtha-avidyā). (i) Ignorance of results produces the demeritorious formations (apuṇya-saṃskāra). (ii) Ignorance of reality produces the meritorious and unchanging formations (puṇya-āniñjya-saṃskāra).
j) (samklesa) one is stained by ignorance (avidyā) due to contemplation dominated by doubts (vicikitsottaradhyāyitā).
a) And what, bhikkhus, are the volitional formations (sankhara)? There are these three kinds of volitional formations: the bodily volitional formation, the verbal volitional formation, the mental volitional formation.
b) What is volition (cetana) [intention]? It is construction by the mind (chittābhisaṃskāra), mental activity (manaskarma). Its function is to direct the mind in the domain of wholesome (kuśala), unwholesome (akuśala) or neutral (avyākṛta) actions.
c) samskara skandha
d) by the bond of delusion, beings are bound to suffering produced by the conditioned state (saṃskāraduḥkha).
e) These are the three characteristics of the saṃskāras: utpāda (birth), sthiti (duration) and bhaṅga (destruction).
f) All composite things (saṃskāra) are divided into past, present and future, inner and outer, etc. It is a question here of their functioning according to this division.
a) There are these six classes of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, and mind-consciousness.
a) What is consciousness (vijñāna)? It includes the six groups of consciousness: the visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile and mental consciousnesses. (ex.: What is the visual consciousness? It is an announcement (prativijñapti) having the eye as its base and visible form as its object.)
b) vijnana skandha
c) What is the function of consciousness? It supports the connectedness of the actions (karmabandhaṃ cha dhārayati) of beings, and it is also the condition for name and form.
a) Feeling, perception, volition (cetana), contact (phassa), and attention (manasikara): this is called name. The four great elements and the form derived from the four great elements: this is called form.
b) What is the function of name and form? It compels beings to take on a self (ātmabhāva), and it is also the condition for the six spheres.
a) The eye base, the ear base, the nose base, the tongue base, the body base, the mind base.
b) What is the function of the six spheres? They compel beings to take on the fullness of a self (ātmabhāvaparipūrim), and they are also the condition for contact.
c) ṣaḍāyatanam: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mental organ
6. sparsa (phassa)
a) There are these six classes of contact: eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, mind-contact.
b) What is contact (sparśa)? It is that which is analogous to the transformation of a faculty when the three-fold union takes place. Its function is to provide a basis for sensation (vedanā).
c) What is the function of contact? It leads beings to the sense pleasures (viṣayopabhoga), and it is also the condition for sensation.
a) There are these six classes of feeling: feeling born of eye-contact, feeling born of ear-contact, feeling born of nose-contact, feeling born of tongue-contact, feeling born of body-contact, feeling born of mind-contact.
b) What is the function of sensation? It leads beings to the experience of birth (janmopabhaga), and it is also the condition for thirst.
c) vedana skandha
8. trisna (tanha)
a) There are these six classes of craving: craving for forms (sights), craving for sounds, craving for odours, craving for tastes, craving for tactile objects, craving for mental phenomena.
b) The three kinds of thirst are kāmatṛṣṇā (thirst for the sense pleasures), bhavatṛṣṇā (thirst for existence and becoming) and vibhavatṛṣṇā (thirst for extinction).
c) What is the function of thirst? It draws beings towards birth (janma), and it is also the condition for grasping.
d) The thirst (desire, tṛṣṇā) that produces re-existence and re-becoming (paunarbhavikī), which is bound to passionate lust (nandīrāgasahagatā) and which takes its delights here and there (tatratatrā’bhinandinī), was designated by the Blessed One as the Truth of the origin of suffering (samudayasatya). This is the main exposition (prādhānyanirdeśa) of the Truth of the origin.
*) What is the principal meaning (prādhyānyārtha)? It is the meaning that is present everywhere (sarvatragārtha). What does it mean that it is present everywhere? It is the fact that this thirst (tṛṣṇā) is present in regard to all objects (vastusarvatraga), on all occasions (avasthāsarvatraga), at all times, past, present and future (adhvasarvatrsaga), in all realms of existence (dhātusarvatraga), in all pursuits (eṣaṇāsarvatraga),131 and in all forms (prakārasarvatraga).
e) One is stained by thirst (tṛṣṇā) due to the stain caused by enjoyment (āsvādasaṃkleśa);
f) When a person who meditates is dominated by desire, thirst (tṛṣṇā), he develops a taste for dhyāna (āsvādasamāpatti);
g) Here ‘mother’ means ‘thirst’ (tṛṣṇā, desire), ‘father means ‘ignorance (avidyā) or ‘pride of I-am’ (asmimāna), ‘the two kings’ means ‘the two wrong views’ eternalism (śaśvatadṛṣṭi) and nihilism (ucchedadṛṭi), the ‘kingdom with its ministers’ means ‘the six sense organs and their external objects (dvādaśāyatana) with attachment (mandīrāga).’
a) And what, bhikkhus, is clinging (sometimes translated as 'fuel')? There are these four kinds of clinging: clinging to sensual pleasures, clinging to (wrong) views, clinging to rules and vows, clinging to a doctrine of self.
b) Grasping (upādāna) is fourfold, namely, the graspings of (i) the sense pleasures (kāmopādāna), (ii) wrong views (dṛṣtyupādāna), (iii) observances and rituals (śīlavratopādāna) and (iv) the theory of self (ātmavādopādāna).
*) Grasping should be understood as causing dispute and rebirth. What is the result of grasping? Because of the obstructive defilement of lust for the sense pleasures, lay people quarrel. The first grasping (i) is the root of this type of quarreling. Because of the obstructive defilement of attachment to wrong views, monastics argue. The last three graspings, (ii), (iii) and (iv), consitute the root of this type of dispute. The sixty-two types of wrong view constitute grasping of views. The grasping pf observances and rituals is the austere ascetic practice that follows the various observances and rituals. The grasping of the theory of self, (iv), is the notion of the self associated with this ascetic practice. Heretics dispute because of the grasping of wrong views and of observances and rituals, and although they do not dispute in regard to the theory of self (ātmavāda), nevertheless they dispute with adherents of the Dharma. Thus they are called graspings (upadāna) because they are attached to the cause of disputes and because they produce painful results in future births.
c)Why are the aggregates called ‘being grasped’ (appropriated) (upādana)? The aggregates are called thus because they are associated with grasping.
d) What is the function of grasping? It compels the consciousness of beings to become associated with grasping (sopādāna) in order to take birth again (punarbhavādāna), and it also is the condition for becoming.
e) ‘four attachments’ (cattāri upādānāni): ‘attachment to sensual desire’ (kāmupādānaṃ), and ‘attachment to becoming’ (bhavupādānaṃ), ‘attachment to view’ (ditthūpādānam), ‘attachment to the doctrine of self’ (attavādupādānam).
a) There are these three kinds of existence: sense-sphere existence, form-sphere existence, formless-sphere existence.
b) What is the function of becoming? It directs beings towards a new existence (punarbhava), and it is also the condition for birth.
a) The birth of the various beings into the various orders of beings, their being born, descent (into the womb), production (abhinibbatti= rebirth), the manifestation of the aggregates, the obtaining of the sense bases.
b) What is birth (jāti)? It is a designation indicating the appearing into existence of formations after their disappearance (saṃskarāṇaṃ abhūtvā bhāve) for a similar class of sentient beings (nikāyasabhāge).
c) What is the function of birth? It produces beings in the proper order of name and form, six spheres, contact and sensation, and it is also the condition for old age and death.
d) (jatiduhkha) Why is birth suffering? Because of the suffering due to obstruction and because it is the basis of the other kinds of suffering.
a) The aging of the various beings in the various orders of beings, their growing old, brokenness of teeth, greyness of hair, wrinkling of skin, decline of vitality, degeneration of the faculties: this is called aging. The passing away of the various beings from the various orders of beings, their perishing, their break up, disappearance, mortality, death, completion of time, the break up of the aggregates, the laying down of the carcass: this is called death. Thus this aging and this death are together called aging-and-death."
b) What is the function of old age and death? It wears out beings continually by the decline of age (vayaḥ pariṇāma) and life (jīvitapariṇāma).
c) What is ageing (jarā)? It is a designation indicating the change that takes place in the continuity (prabandhānyathātva) of formations similar in type.
d) It is said that death (maraṇa) is suffering. Here death is threefold: (i) that of a person whose mind is wholesome (kuśalacitta), (ii) that of a person whose mind is unwholesome (akuśalacitta) and (iii) that of a person whose mind is neutral (avyākṛtacitta).
e) duhkha. ("From birth arises dukkha".)
№42910Добавлено: Вт 16 Окт 07, 19:40 (15 лет тому назад)
To understand the full meaning of bhava one has to go to the Anguttara Nikaya (3, 76), where Venerable Ananda asks The Buddha, "What is bhava?" The Buddha responds by questioning Ananda: "If there was no kamma ripening in the kamaloka, would there be existence in the realm dominated by the five senses?" He then asks the same about the other two realms: "If there was no kamma ripening in the rupaloka, would there be existence in the rupaloka? If there was no kamma ripening in the arupaloka, would there be existence in the arupaloka?" Accordingly, Ananda replies "certainly not" to each question. The Buddha then further explains: "So, Ananda, you can regard kamma (the actions of body, speech and mind) as the field, you can regard consciousness as the seed, and you can regard craving as the moisture. Thus, for beings who are blinded by ignorance and fettered by craving, there is the establishment of the consciousness in this lower realm, in the hinadhatu (ie. the realms dominated by the five senses), (and so forth for the two higher realms of existence). Thus there is in the future more existence (punabbhava), rebirth (abhinibbatti)". Here The Buddha was giving the simile of plants growing, with kamma as the field, and consciousness as the seed, which is fed by the moisture of craving to explain how bhava is a cause for rebirth (jati). 
77. Venerable Ananda approached the Blessed One, worshipped and sat on a side. Then venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: Venerable sir, it is said, `being' (бхава) what is its meaning?
Ananda, when the sensual element (камадхату) is mature if there will be no action (каммам набхавитасса), is `a senual being' (камабхаво) evident?
No, venerable sir.
Thus Ananda, in the field of action, the seed consciousness, moistened with craving of a sentient being shrouded by ignorance, the bond craving establishes consciousness in the lower element (хиная дхатуя). Thus comes future rebirth. Ananda, this is being.
Ananda, when the material element (рупадхату) is mature if there will be no action, is `a material being' (рупабхаво) evident?
No, venerable sir.
Thus Ananda, in the field of action, the seed consciousness, moistened with craving of a sentient being shrouded by ignorance, the bond craving establishes consciousness in the middle element (маджжимая дхатуя). Thus comes future rebirth. Ananda, this is being.
Ananda, when the immaterial element (арупадхату) is mature if there will be no action, is `an immaterial being' (арупабхаво) evident?
No, venerable sir.
Thus Ananda, in the field of action, the seed consciousness, moistened with craving of a sentient being shrouded by ignorance, the bond craving establishes consciousness (виннянам) in the exalted element (панитая дхатуя). Thus comes future rebirth. Ananda, this is being.
Еще интереснее, что следующая сутра (78) полностью повторяет эту, за исключением, что там вместо установления сознания (винняна) идет пара intention and aspirations (четана и паттхана).
№43146Добавлено: Пн 22 Окт 07, 14:43 (15 лет тому назад)
pp. 52-53 of the Samyutta Nikaya Translation by Bhikkhu Bodhi:
"Bhava" in MLDB, was translated "being." In seeking an alternative, I had first experimented with "becoming," but when the shortcomings in this choice were pointed out to me, I decided to return to "existence," used in my earlier translations. "Bhava," however, is not "existence" in the sense of the most universal ontological category, that which is shared by everything from the dishes in the kitchen sink to the numbers in a mathematical equation. Existence in the latter sense is covered by the verb "atthi" and the abstract noun "a.t.thitaa."
"Bhava" is concrete sentient existence in one of the three realms of existence posited by Buddhist cosmology, a span of life beginning with conception and ending with death. In the formula of dependent origination, it is understood to mean both (i) the active side of life that produces rebirth, and (ii) a particular mode of sentient existence, in other words rebirth-producing kamma; and (iii) the mode of sentient existence that results from such activity.
Тут я вобщем понял так - бхава, это кармически iii)обусловленная и i)обуславливающая ii)эта жизнь.
p. 726 of footnotes in the same translation by Bhikkhu Bodhi:
In the exposition of existence, "sense-sphere-existence" is both kamma-existence (kamma-bhava) and rebirth-existence (upapatti-bhava). Of these kamma existence is just kamma that leads to sense sphere existence; for the kamma, being the cause for rebirth existence in that realm is spoken of as "existence" by assigning the name of the result to the cause. "Rebirth existence" is the set of five kammically aquired aggregates produced by that kamma; for this is called "existence" in the sense that it comes to be there. The same method of explanation applies to form-sphere and formless-sphere existence (except that in formless sphere rebirth-existence, only the four mental aggregates exist).
It should be noted that in interpreting the expression "upaadaanapaccaya," the commentaries take bhava as either "kamma-bhava" or "upapatti-bhava," since both volitional activity and rebirth are conditioned by clinging; but in the expression "bhavapaccaya jaati," they confine bhava to kamma-bhava, since "upapatti bhava" includes jaati and thus cannot be a condition for it.
See Vism 572-573 (Ppn 17:258-260) and Vism 575 (Ppn 17:270) 
Тут бхава делится на два вида, камма-бхава - как сумма кармы приводящая к перерождению в соответствующей локе, (она называется бхавой видимо аллегорически), и упапатти-бхава - собственно перерождение, т.е. пять скандх произведённых той каммой.
№46659Добавлено: Вт 01 Янв 08, 04:43 (15 лет тому назад)
В Абхидхармакоша-бхашья имеет такой фрагмент на тему AN 3.76:
Сознание и другие [группы] также были названы [Бхагаваном] причиной возникновения [страдания, поскольку, согласно другой сутре, они] существуют как семя и поле (bijaksetrabhavam).
— Что такое «рождение» и что такое «повторяющееся существование» (upapatti и abhinirvrtti)?
— Рождение —это возникновение тела индивида (atmabhava), и оно различается по ряду аспектов — сфере существования, форме рождения, типу рождения и т.д. Повторяющееся существование — это установление неразрывной связи (pratisarndhana) с новым существованием без различия [его характеристик]. Причиной того и другого является, соответственно, деятельность (карма) и жажда существования. Например, семя есть причина появления ростка, различающегося по своей видовой принадлежности: рис, ячмень и т. д. А вода — [это причина] прорастания всех побегов независимо от их вида. Такова логическая демонстрация.
Итого, я усматриваю такое раскрытие той аналогии:
Поле = карма = способность давать плод (приносить урожай) = три дхату.
Семя = сознание = соответствие засеваемого и плода. (Т.е. из неблагого сознания проростает только неблагое рождение-плод.)
Вода = жажда (танха) = взращивает все семена независимо от их вида.
Бхава тут или только поле (способность проращивать карму) или вся схема вместе (семя + поле = соотв. вид рождения).
№95097Добавлено: Чт 23 Июн 11, 07:39 (12 лет тому назад)
Проблема ещё и в том, как мне кажется, что в западной философии, есть много мнений, относительно значения термина "бытие". Экзистенциалисты, материалисты, идеалисты и т.д. - все они дают своё определение "бытия". Некоторые, напрмер, считают, что слово "бытие" является синонимом "существования", есть и совсем другие мнения. Как определяется bhava в Ахидхармакоше (в других буддийских канонах)?
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