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Rebirth (Sanskrit, punaravritti, punarutpatti, punarjanman,
or punarjlvatu), also called transmigration and
reincarnation, is the belief common to all Buddhist traditions
that birth and death occur in successive cycles
driven by ignorance (avidya), DESIRE (trisinia), and
hatred (dvesia). The cycle of rebirth, termed SAMi SARA,
is beginningless and ongoing, and it is determined by
the moral quality of a person’s thoughts and KARMA
(ACTION). The effects of good moral actions lead to
wholesome rebirths, and the effects of bad moral actions
lead to unwholesome rebirths.
Origins of the doctrine
Scholars have long debated the origins of the theory of
rebirth among the religions of India. Some trace the
belief to the ritual models inscribed in the ancient
literature of the Vedas and Brahmanias, which rested
firmly on belief in the efficacy of ritual sacrifice as a
means to secure a place in heaven. To guarantee positive
future results these sacrificial acts were required
to be perpetually reenacted. The conceptual parallels
in this ancient model of a continuous cycle of ritual
action have led some scholars to suggest that the mechanics
of Vedic ritual should be seen as the precursor
to later Indian theories of karma, sami sara, and rebirth.
Other more controversial suggestions have been
that rebirth doctrine originated among the ancient
non-Aryan tribal groups of India. Still others theorize
that the doctrine was formulated by followers of
the saminyasin (renouncer) traditions affiliated with
the broad-based s?ramania (mendicant) movement that
began to emerge in India around the sixth century
B.C.E., a movement that included the early Buddhists
and Jains.
Rebirth and the problem of no-self
The Buddhist doctrine of rebirth differs fundamentally
from the idea generally upheld in Hinduism and Jainism,
both of which accept the existence of an eternal
and substantial self or soul (atman in Hinduism, jlva
in Jainism) that transmigrates from life to life. Buddhism,
by contrast, rejects the notion of an absolute
self. Fundamental to its understanding of rebirth is
the doctrine of no-self (anatman)—the idea that in
sami sara, which is forever in flux, impermanent, and
constantly changing, there can be no permanent, unchanging,
independent self or soul.
But if there is no absolute self, how does Buddhism
resolve the problem of transmigration and of the continuity
of karma between one life and the next? The
early Buddhist schools in India offered a variety of responses
to this conundrum. One school, the Vatsiputr
triya (also known as the PUDGALAVADA), went so far
as to propose the concept of an inexpressible personal
entity (pudgala) that traveled from life to life, a concept
that seemed to contradict the fundamental tenet
of anatman. Other schools, such as the Sarvastivada,
posited the existence of an ethereal entity (called a
gandharva) composed of subtle forms of the five
STATE (antarabhava) between death and
the next birth. In the early period of Buddhism in India,
concepts like pudgala and antarabhava were subjects
of much controversy.
Not all of the schools accepted such ideas. The
THERAVADA, for example, denied the existence of an
intermediate state and argued instead for the existence
of an inactive mode of deep consciousness (bhavan?ga)
that forms a causal link (Sanskrit, pratisandhi; Pali,
patiisandhi) between one life and the next. In this view,
the first moment of consciousness in a new birth is
simply the direct conditioned effect of the final moment
of consciousness of the immediately previous
Rebirth and cosmic causality
In basic Buddhist doctrinal terms, an answer to the difficult
question of rebirth in light of the cardinal teaching
of “no-self” is to be located in how Buddhism
understands causality, the way one thing leads to another.
One Buddhist formula describes it as follows:
“When this exists, that exists; from this arising, that
arises. When this does not exist, that does not exist;
from this ceasing, that ceases.” Technically speaking,
this principle of causality is explicated by the formal
which holds that all phenomena, including
the “self” and the surrounding world, arise out of a network
of relationships dependent upon other causes and
conditions. The self, therefore, is not to be understood
as an essential, independent entity moving from one
life to the next, but rather as a manifestation of a complex
of causes and conditions, both mental and physical,
themselves interdependent and continually in flux.
The doctrine of dependent origination is graphically
depicted as a circular chain consisting of twelve conditioned
and conditioning links (nidana): (1) ignorance,
the inability to perceive the truth of ANITYA (IMPERMANENCE)
and dependent origination, conditions (2)
karmic formations, from which comes (3) consciousness,
which leads to (4) mind-and-body (name and
form) and then (5) the six senses (sources); the gateway
of the six senses leads to (6) sensory contact that creates
(7) sense impressions or feelings; these lead to (8) attachment;
attachment leads to (9) grasping, which in
turn gives rise to (10) becoming; becoming culminates
in (11) birth, from which follow (12) aging and death,
and the cycle begins again. In sequence, these twelve
links generate life cycles within the perpetual process of
samsara driven by karma. In this way, the twelvefold
chain of dependent origination describes the process of
rebirth. Birth and death, then, are to be understood as
nothing more or less than oscillating links in the ongoing
chain of cause and effect. Rebirth is a configuration
of a new cluster of causes and conditions propelled by
previous karmic impulses. The process is compared to
lighting one candle with the flame of another; the former
flame is not the same as the latter and yet there is
still a transfer of the flame. Like lighting a new candle,
rebirth is simply the movement of a continuum of everchanging
mental and physical complexes from one
physical support to another. It is this particular notion
of causality that lies at the heart of the Buddhist understanding
of rebirth.
The engine of rebirth is karma, the good and bad
actions of body, speech, and mind that have been performed
not only in the immediately preceding life but
also many lifetimes ago. The cumulative moral quality
of a person’s karma determines the quality of each
successive life. There is widespread consensus among
Buddhists everywhere, however, that the state of a person’s
mind at the moment of death can actually be the
most significant factor in setting the course for the future
rebirth. It is usually the case that the mind at death
tends to be occupied by whatever habitual thoughts
and actions were most familiar in life or by whatever
actions are performed just prior to death. For this reason,
Buddhism recommends the cultivation of proper
mindfulness and the performance of virtuous activities
at the time of dying, which are all designed to insure
a favorable rebirth. To be sure, the concern of the
vast majority of ordinary Buddhists is less about the
achievement of liberation from the cycle of samsara
and more about the attainment of a better position
within that cycle. A good rebirth, according to Buddhism,
is birth in one of the three higher realms of
samsara, that of gods (deva), demigods (asura), and
human beings (manus?ya), with human birth deemed
the most precious. Rebirth in the other three realms,
of animals (tiryak), ghosts (preta), and hell beings
(naraka), is regarded as terribly unfortunate. In all
Buddhist cultures, certain merit-enhancing actions are
performed at death to assure favorable circumstances
in the next life. In the most general terms, these actions
include the dedication of merit, almsgiving, and
the recitation of Buddhist scriptures.
Methods for ensuring a wholesome rebirth
In China and Japan, much emphasis is placed on rebirth
in a buddha’s pure land, such as AMITABHA’s
pure land of Sukhavati, the Land of Bliss. Although
there are multiple explanations for how best to ensure
rebirth in one of these pure lands, in general it
requires faith and a sincere aspiration to be reborn
there. The repeated chanting of the name of the particular
buddha of that realm or the recitation of his
scripture at the moment of dying is also recommended.
In addition, Chinese Buddhists at the time
of death sometimes offer ritual paper money, popularly
called “spirit money,” to the postmortem bureaucrats
and executive officers who are believed to
abide in the afterlife. It is thought that this monetary
offering will lessen the deceased’s karmic debts and
secure passport to a more favorable rebirth. The
burning of such “hell notes” as an offering for the
benefit of the dead is also practiced among Buddhists
in Burma (Myanmar) and Vietnam.
In Japanese Buddhism, posthumous ORDINATION,
the monastic ordination of the dying on their deathbed,
is commonly practiced as a means to guarantee
salvation and a better rebirth. In this way it can be said
that all Buddhists in Japan die as MONKS or NUNS.
Tibetan Buddhism also recognizes the value of virtuous
actions and proper MINDFULNESS at the moment
of death. In Tibet, special rituals are performed to actually
guide the deceased’s consciousness through the
perilous pathways of the intermediate state (Tibetan,
bar do) and into the next life. These funerary rituals
are inscribed in specific Tibetan Buddhist liturgical
manuals, some of which have achieved notoriety in
Western-language translations, such as the TIBETAN
In all of these Buddhist deathbed practices an underlying
principle is at work. Virtuous actions performed
at the moment of death by the dying and by
surviving relatives can positively affect a person’s future
destiny. In other words, a good death leads to a
good rebirth.
See also: Anatman/A tman (No-Self/Self); Cosmology;
Death; Hinduism and Buddhism; Intermediate States;
Jainism and Buddhism
Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Taye. Myriad Worlds: Buddhist Cosmology
in Abhidharma, Kalacakra, and Dzog-chen, tr. and ed.
by the International Translation Committee founded by the
V.V. Kalu Rinpoche. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion, 1995.
O’Flaherty, Wendy Doniger, ed. Karma and Rebirth in Classical
Indian Traditions. Berkeley: University of California Press,
Sadakata, Akira. Buddhist Cosmology: Philosophy and Origins, tr.
Gaynor Sekimori. Tokyo: Kosei, 1997.
Teiser, Stephen F. The Scripture of the Ten Kings and the Making
of Purgatory in Medieval Chinese Buddhism. Honolulu:
University of Hawaii Press, 1994.
Tenzin Gyatso (Dalai Lama XIV). The Meaning of Life: Buddhist
Perspectives on Cause and Effect, tr. and ed. Jeffrey Hopkins.
Boston: Wisdom, 2000.
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Buddhanusmrti (recollection of the Buddha) is the first
of a set of up to ten anusmrtis (acts of recollection or
calling to mind) that are used for both meditative and
liturgical purposes. The full set of ten anusmrtis comprises
Buddha, dharma, san? gha, morality, liberality,
deities, respiration, death, parts of the body, and peace.
Buddhist practitioners focus their minds on these subjects
by reciting a set text or formula listing their salient
qualities. The recollection of the Buddha was the most
important anusmrti, eventually becoming an independent
Initially the relevant formula comprised the socalled
ten epithets or titles of the Buddha, in that practitioners
were instructed to recall that the Buddha was
indeed worthy, correctly and fully awakened, perfected
in knowledge and conduct, blessed, knower of the
world, supreme, trainer of humans amenable to training,
teacher of gods and humankind, Buddha, and
lord. This credal rehearsal of the Buddha’s qualities was
held by authorities like BUDDHAGHOSA (fifth century
C.E.) to purify the mind of defilements and prepare it
for advanced meditation. However, other benefits were
also ascribed to the practice, so that buddhanusmrti
was, for example, thought useful for apotropaic purposes,
for warding off fear and danger, as well as for
generating merit.
At some stage buddhanusmrti was augmented to include
the calling to mind not only of the Buddha’s
virtues but also his physical appearance. Iconography
probably influenced this process, which by the second
century C.E. had given rise to the Mahayanist pratyutpannasama
dhi, a full-fledged visualization of the spiritual
and physical qualities of any buddha of the
present age, not just Gautama. This meditation incorporated
the earlier form of buddhanusmrti, whose text
remained the nucleus of the mental operations required,
even though its recitation was eventually shortened
to the invocation of the buddha’s name. In
Chinese Buddhism, consequently, buddhanusmrti is
known as nianfo, in which the element nian refers both
to thinking about the buddha (fo) and reciting him, or
rather his name. Nianfo came primarily to refer to invocation
of the name of AMITABHA, on account of the
importance of that buddha’s cult in East Asia. The
words Namu amituo fo (hail to the Buddha Amitabha)
have accordingly become a prime liturgical and ritual
formula for Chinese Buddhists, who have used them
in communal worship, in personal devotions, even as
a Buddhist greeting when answering the telephone.
Similar developments have occurred in Korea and
Japan. Even Buddhists who are not devotees of
Amitabha have been deeply influenced by this practice,
one example of this being the invocation of the
DAIMOKU, or the sacred title of the LOTUS SUTRA (SADDHARMAPUN
DARIKA-SUTRA), by followers of the
The persistence of buddhanusmrti and its derivatives
testifies to the central importance in Buddhism of the
relationship between those who seek salvation and the
awakened teacher who shows them the PATH, and it
reflects the belief that focusing the mind on the qualities
of the awakened one helps aspirants to liberation
move closer toward realizing those qualities themselves.
The latter notion is explicitly developed in MAHA
YANA Buddhism, and even more so in VAJRAYANA,
where it informs the tantric practice of “deity yoga.”
See also: Buddha(s); Chanting and Liturgy; Nenbutsu
(Chinese, Nianfo; Korean, Yo?mbul)
Conze, Edward. Buddhist Meditation. Allen and Unwin: London,
Harrison, Paul. “Commemoration and Identification in Buddhanusmrti.”
In In the Mirror of Memory: Reflections on
Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism,
ed. Janet Gyatso. Albany: State University of New
York Press, 1992.
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Engaged Buddhism or socially engaged Buddhism is a
relatively new Buddhist movement that emphasizes social
service and nonviolent activism. Since the midtwentieth
century Buddhist organizations in Asia and
the West have drawn upon traditional teachings and
practices—such as the PRECEPTS against harming,
stealing, and lying; the virtues of kindness and compassion;
the principles of selflessness and interdependence;
the vow to save all beings; and practices of
MEDITATION and skillful means—to protect humans
and other beings from injury and suffering. Their concerns
include stopping war, promoting human rights,
ministering to the victims of disease and disaster, and
safeguarding the natural environment.
Two engaged Buddhists have won the Nobel Prize
for peace: Bstan ‘dzin rgya mtsho (pronounced Tenzin
Gyatso), the fourteenth DALAI LAMA of Tibet, was
awarded the prize in 1989, and Aung San Suu Kyi, the
opposition leader in Burma (Myanmar), won it in
1991. Other leaders of the movement are the Vietnamese
monk and poet, THICH NHAT HANH, who
coined the term engaged Buddhism in the 1960s; the
late Indian untouchable activist and statesman, B. R.
AMBEDKAR; the Thai activist and writer, Sulak
Sivaraksa; the Taiwanese nun who founded hospitals
and international relief missions, Ven. Shih Chengyen;
and American teachers Robert Aitken, Joanna
Macy, Bernard Glassman, John Daido Loori, Joan Halifax,
and Paula Green.
Engaged Buddhist organizations have appeared
throughout the world. South and Southeast Asia are
home to the International Network of Engaged Buddhists,
based in Thailand; the Trilokya Bauddha Maha
san? gha Sahayaka Gana, which serves Dalit (low-caste)
communities in India; the Dhammayietra peace walk
movement in Cambodia, founded by Ven. Maha
Ghosananda; and the Sarvodaya Shramadana rural development
movement, which serves more than eleven
thousand villages in Sri Lanka.
East Asia hosts a number of local organizations,
such as the Buddhist Coalition for Economic Justice
and the environmentalist Cho?ngt’o Society in South
Korea; international peace organizations, such as the
Japan-based, Nichiren-inspired Rissho Kosekai, Soka
Gakkai International (SGI), and Nipponzan Myohoji,
known for peace walks and “peace pagodas”; and the
Buddhist Compassionate Relief Tz’u-chi Association
of Taiwan, with its hospitals, rescue teams, and bonemarrow
donation program. The West also has its share
of engaged Buddhists organizations, including the
Buddhist Peace Fellowship and the Zen Peacemaker
Community, based in the United States; the An? gulima
la Prison Ministry in Britain; the Free Tibet movement,
based in New York and Washington, D.C.; and
numerous other peace, justice, and service groups in
North America, Europe, Australia, and South Africa.
Practitioners and scholars of engaged Buddhism do
not agree on its origins. Some argue that social service
has appeared in the Buddhist record since the time of
the Buddha and King AS? OKA, before the common era,
and increasingly since the rise of the BODHISATTVA
ethic of MAHAYANA Buddhism in the centuries that
followed. Scattered examples of SAN? GHA-based public
service and of tension between san? gha and state have
been attested by historians of Asian Buddhism. Others
hold that Buddhist activism—particularly collective
protest of state corruption, economic injustice,
and human rights violations—is unprecedented in
Buddhism prior to the twentieth century, and reflects
the globalization and hybridization of Asian, European,
and American values.
Engaged Buddhism offers new perspectives on traditional
teachings. Among these is the belief that human
beings can overcome DUHKHA (SUFFERING). The
FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, an ancient formulation, defines
suffering as the psychological discomfort associated
with craving for objects or experiences that are impermanent
and insubstantial. The cessation of personal
suffering is sought by adopting prescribed views,
aspirations, actions, speech, vocations, effort, mindfulness,
and concentration. The tradition also attributes
a person’s life circumstances to patterns of
motivation and behavior in previous lives, through the
universal laws of KARMA (ACTION) and REBIRTH.
Most engaged Buddhists accept these ideas, but
stress causes of suffering they believe to be external to
the sufferer and collective in nature. The Dalit Buddhists
of India believe that caste-group suffering is
caused by entrenched social interests that restrict their
social mobility, economic opportunity, and political
influence. The Buddhists of Southeast Asia, Tibet, and
Sri Lanka know that invading armies and local insurgents
cause collective suffering—loss of life, livelihood,
and homeland. Those afflicted by epidemics and natural
disasters recognize the social and natural conditions
that cause their sufferings. Thus, for engaged
Buddhism, there are true victims who suffer the effects
of others’ hatred, greed, and delusion, and of impersonal
forces beyond their control.
In response to such external causes of suffering, engaged
Buddhists typically adopt practices of social service
and nonviolent struggle as “skillful means” on the
path to liberation. Ambedkar called this Navayana
(New Vehicle) Buddhism, alluding to the traditional
yanas (vehicles) of Buddhist historiography.
See also: Ethics; Karuna (Compassion); Modernity and
Chappell, David W., ed. Buddhist Peacework: Creating Cultures
of Peace. Somerville, MA: Wisdom, 1999.
Kraft, Kenneth, ed. Inner Peace, World Peace: Essays on Buddhism
and Nonviolence. Albany: State University of New
York Press, 1992.
Queen, Christopher S., ed. Engaged Buddhism in the West.
Somerville, MA: Wisdom, 2000.
Queen, Christopher S., and King, Sallie B., eds. Engaged Buddhism:
Buddhist Liberation Movements in Asia. Albany: State
University of New York Press, 1996.
Queen, Christopher; Prebish, Charles; and Keown, Damien; eds.
Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. London:
RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.
Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and Williams, Duncan Ryuken, eds. Buddhism
and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.
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Few notions elicit more debate and vague associations
than the family of concepts associated with the word
faith and its various approximate synonyms (e.g., belief).
Needless to say, the English faith has no exact
equivalent in the languages of Asia. The word means
many things in English and in other Western languages
as well, and the proximate Asian equivalents also have
many meanings in their Asian contexts. This is not to
say that faith cannot be used as a descriptive or analytical
tool to understand Buddhist ideas and practices,
yet one must be aware of the cultural and polemic environments
that shaped Buddhist notions of faith.
Semantic range
The most common English theological meanings are
the ones that have the most questionable similarity to
historical Buddhist belief and practice: acceptance of
and secure belief in the existence of a personal creator
deity (“belief in”), acceptance of such deity as a unique
person with a distinctive name, the unquestioned acceptance
of this deity’s will, and the adoption of the
articles of dogma believed to express the deity’s will.
Buddhist notions tend to occupy a different center in
the semantic field: serene trust, confident belief that
the practice of the dharma will bear the promised fruit,
and joyful surrender to the presence or vision of one
or many “ideal beings” (BUDDHAS, BODHISATTVAS,
etc.). The articles of belief and systems of practice that
constitute the Buddhist PATH are seldom set up explicitly
as direct objects of faith, but confessions of trust
and declarations of commitment to various aspects of
the path are common ritual practices (taking the
REFUGES, taking vows, etc.).
The objects of faith can be all, any, or only one
among the multiple buddhas, bodhisattvas, and deities
of Buddhism. Nevertheless, Buddhists often confess
their total trust in a particular deity or buddha or bodhisattva
identified by a unique name and by personal
attributes that are considered distinctive and superior
to those of any other deity (e.g., the cult of AMITABHA
or the cult of Shugs ldan).
A sense of the range of Buddhist conceptions of
“faith” can be derived from a glance at some of the
classical Asian terms that are rendered into English as
faith. The term s?raddha (Pali, saddha), for instance,
may signify belief, but generally refers more to trust
and commitment. It is sometimes glossed as “trust or
reliance on someone else” (parapratyaya, Abhidharmakos
?a VI. 29), but, etymologically, it derives from an old
Indo-European verb meaning “to place one’s heart on
(a desire, goal, object, or person),” which appears in
Latin in the verb credo, and subsequently in English as
creed, credence, and so on.
A connection between this mental state and other
positive states is suggested in a variety of ways. For instance,
in the abhidharma literature the word s?raddh  a
refers to one of the mental factors that are always present
in good thoughts (kus?alamahabhumika, Abhidharmakos
?a II. 23–25). Already in the su tra/sutta
literature, s?raddha is one of the five mental faculties
necessary for a good practice (the five indriyas or five
balas), which include MINDFULNESS and persevering
These meanings are associated also with the idea of
conviction, committed and steadfast practice, or commitment
as active engagement, a range of concepts expressed
with the term adhimukti or adhimoksa (Pali,
adhimutti or adhimokkha). The attitude or cognitiveaffective
state expressed by this word is characteristic
of the preliminary stage in a bodhisattva’s career: the
stage of acting (carya) on one’s commitment (adhimukti),
or adhimukticaryabhumi.
Examined from the perspective suggested by the
above range of usages, faith would be a sui generis psychological
state, an extension of the ability to trust or
rely on someone or something. In this aspect of the
denotation of s?raddha, and adhimoksa, faith is also a
virtue necessary for concentrated MEDITATION, and is
closely related to, if not synonymous with, the disciple’s
ardent desire for self-cultivation or the zeal required
for such cultivation. In this context, faith is also
the opposite of, or an antidote against, the sluggishness,
dejection, and discouragement that can arise during
long hours of meditation practice.
However, such monastic or contemplative definitions
of faith do not exhaust the Buddhist repertoire.
As noted previously, Buddhist concepts of faith include
as well affective states associated with the attachment
and trust of devotion. Such states are sometimes subsumed
under the category of prasada (the action noun
corresponding to prasannacitta). This term has a long
history in the religious traditions of India; it means etymologically
“settling down,” and evokes meanings of
“serenity, calm, aplomb,” as well as conviction and
trust. Furthermore, among its many usages, it expresses
both the “favor” of the powerful (their serene
largess, their grace) and the acceptance or recognition
of this favorable disposition on the part of the weaker
participant in the relationship (serene trust, confident
acceptance). The latter feeling is not only serene trust
in the wisdom of a teacher or in the truth of the teachings,
but the joyful acceptance of the benevolent power
and benediction of sacred objects and holy persons.
Thus the proper state of mind when performing a ritual
of devotion is a prasannacitta: a mind in the state
of prasada, that is, calmly secure, trusting, devoted,
content, and loyal.
East Asian usages
These Indian concepts were usually rendered in Chinese
with a term denoting trust, xin, where the accent
is on confidence, rather than on a surrender of one’s
discursive judgment. Nonetheless, xin also could denote
surrender and unquestioned acceptance, absolute
trust, and a believing mind and will. The later meanings
played a major role in both nonliterate practice
and the theologies of faith of some of the literate
The first element in this polarity (faith that does not
exclude knowledge or direct apprehension of religious
truths) is seen, for instance, in the classical CHAN
SCHOOL notion of xinxin: “trusting the mind.” This
refers to the conviction that the searching mind is the
object of its own search—that is, buddha-nature. Such
conviction is understood as a nonmediated, nonreasoned
confidence born of the immediate apprehension
of a presence. Expressed in terms of a process or
a practice, this faith is the experience of the mind when
one is not manipulating or organizing its contents with
discursive thoughts. The trusting mind itself becomes
the object of trust.
This is the theme of the Xinxinming (Stanzas on
Trusting the Mind), a poem attributed to the “Third
Patriarch” of Chan Buddhism, Sengcan (d. ca. 606
C.E.), in which “mind” or “thought” is the perfect goal
of the religious aspiration that is the act of faith. It is
“perfect like vast empty space, lacking nothing, having
nothing in excess.” What keeps us from experiencing
the mind in this way is our penchant for “selecting and
rejecting.” By contrast, “the trusting mind does not
split things into twos”; not splitting things into twos is
the meaning of “trusting the mind” (or “the trusting
mind” xinxin).
The idea of faith (xin) also appears in a formulation
attributed to Gaofeng Yuanmiao (1238–1295), who
describes three essential aspects of meditation practice
(chan yao). These are: the faculty of faith, persevering
commitment, and DOUBT. Faith is “the great faculty of
trusting” (daxingen), which links the idea to the earlier
abhidharmic notions of trust and faith as a natural
faculty. It is clear that this trust precedes full knowledge
or understanding because the other two aspects
of practice are great tenacity of purpose or persevering
commitment (dafenzhi) and a great feeling of
doubt or intensely felt doubt (dayiqing).
This use of the term xin is ostensibly different from
the meanings accepted by other important strands of
the East Asian tradition in which we find an opposition
between examined trust and the surrender of selfknowledge.
The PURE LAND SCHOOLS (Chinese, jingtu;
Japanese, jodo) in particular understood that the
prasannacitta of the Indian tradition implied a surrender
of the will to pursue a life of holiness or the desire
to attain awakening by one’s own efforts. However,
even among the most radical formulations of the Pure
Land traditions, where the trusting practitioners are
clearly separated from the object of their faith and are
incapable of achieving holiness on their own, the de-
sired state of mind has the distinct marks of Buddhist
notions of mind and faith. Thus, in some of the more
radical Jodo shinshu formulations the devotee’s surrender
is not so much an act of belief as an acceptance
of grace: One surrenders one’s own capacity to discriminate
and believe, and one accepts the Buddha’s
own believing mind (shinjin), so that one’s faith is in
fact adopting, as it were, the Buddha’s own trustworthy
mind (shinjin)—sharing the merits, wisdom, and
compassion of the very object of faith. Affectively, this
theological view is linked with the ideal of joyful trust
(shingyo), the joy and bliss of trusting, which ultimately,
or eschatologically, may be said to be synonymous
with the joy of seeing the Buddha Amitabha face
to face (at the time of death or in the pure land).
Summary Interpretation
Ideals of nondiscursive apprehension straddle the dividing
line between faith and knowledge, humble surrender
and recognition of a state of liberation that
cannot be acquired by the individual’s will. In some
ways the tradition seems to assume that one has faith
in that which one respects and trusts, but also in that
which one wishes to attain, and that which one imagines
oneself to be or able to become.
See also: Pure Land Buddhism; Pure Lands
de Certeau, Michel. “What We Do When We Believe.” In On
Signs, ed. Marshall Blonsky. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1985.
Gomez, Luis O., trans. and ed. The Land of Bliss: The Paradise
of the Buddha of Measureless Light: Sanskrit and Chinese Versions
of the Sukhavatlvyuha Sutras (1996), 3rd printing, corrected
edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2000.
Gomez, Luis O. “Prayer: Buddhist Perspectives.” In Encyclopedia
of Monasticism, Vol. 2, ed. William M. Johnston.
Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000.
Gomez, Luis O. “Spirituality: Buddhist Perspectives.” In Encyclopedia
of Monasticism, Vol. 2, ed. William M. Johnston.
Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000.
Hara, Minoru. “S?raddha in the Sense of Desire.” In Etudes bouddhiques
offertes a Jacques May, ed. J. Bronkhorst, K. Mimaki,
and T. Tillemans. Special issue. Asiatische Studien/Etudes
Asiatiques 161, no. 1 (1992): 180–193.
Lopez, Donald S., Jr. “Belief.” In Critical Terms for Religious
Studies, ed. Mark C. Taylor. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1998.
Park, Sung-bae. Buddhist Faith and Sudden Enlightenment. Albany:
State University of New York Press, 1983.
Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. Faith and Belief. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 1979.
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11909СообщениеДобавлено: Вс 19 Фев 06, 00:54 (11 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

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11910СообщениеДобавлено: Вс 19 Фев 06, 00:55 (11 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

The MAHAYANA sutras developed considerable lore
based on the idea of different buddhas and bodhisattvas
dwelling in buddha-fields (buddhaksetra). It
is common for practitioners to meditate on, make offerings
to, chant sutras about, and recite the name or
MANTRA of a particular BUDDHA or BODHISATTVA. These
Mahayana expressions developed out of the dars?ana
complex, which is well documented in the earliest materials,
and were seen as part of the overall institutional
fabric of Indian Mahayana. (Buddha dars?ana refers to
“seeing” the buddha and entering his nirvanic power,
which leads to spriritual progress.) The core Mahayana
idea is to cultivate a dars?anic relationship with the buddha
and thus gain awakening, or one could aim at future
birth in the buddha-field. The genre of Mahayana
literature that developed these ideas was instrumental
in the formation of the tantras. AMITABHA Buddha and
his accompanying bodhisattvas, Avalokites?vara and
Mahasthamaprapta, are the focus of the Pure Land tradition
in East Asia.
Pure Land teachings in China
In China, the institutionalization of the Pure Land
teachings and the first line of transmission began with
the founding of the White Lotus Society by HUIYUAN
(334–416) on Mount Lu. This society’s practice was
devotee was Liu Yimin, one of the eighteen sages of
Mount Lu, who wrote the society’s manifesto and a
collection of chants. The area became a center of Pure
Land teachings.
The Larger SUKHAVATIVYUHA-SUTRA, a major text in
the tradition, had been translated twice by the midthird
century. In 402 the Amitabha Sutra (also called
the Amida Sutra or Smaller Sukhavatlvyuha-sutra) and
later the Das?abhumikavibhasa (Treatise on the Ten
Stages), attributed to NAGARJUNA (ca. second century),
were translated by KUMARAJIVA (350–409/413). The
Guan Wuliangshou jing (Contemplation of the Buddha
of Limitless Life Sutra) is claimed by tradition to have
been translated between 424 and 453, though it is
probably a Chinese or Central Asian composition.
Once these three major sutras and one main commentary
became available, the Pure Land teachings
moved away from being solely based on the Pratyutpannasama
Tanluan (476–542) became interested in Pure Land
teaching through the influence of Bodhiruci (sixth century),
who translated the Jingtu lun (Discourse on the
Pure Land) attributed to VASUBANDHU (fourth century)
in 531. Tanluan wrote an extensive commentary
to this work, as well as Zan Amitofo ji (Verses in Praise
of Amida Buddha) and Lue lun anlejingtu yi (An
Abridged Discourse on the Pure Land of Peace and Bliss).
Tanluan accepted the Das?abhumikavibhasa’s distinction
of the difficult PATH (the path of sages) and the
easy path (the Pure Land path). He believed that
Amitabha’s Pure Land was the ultimate reality; that
reciting Amitabha’s name (Chinese, nianfo; Sanskrit,
buddhanusmrti) eliminates negative karma; and that
the practice of nianfo requires a mind of true “confidence.”
He also described how an accumulation of
positive karma aids rebirth and is distributed when returning
to aid sentient beings, and he accepted the divisions
of the dharmakaya into a dharma-nature aspect
and an expedience aspect. Tanluan coined the term
other power, meaning not relying on one’s false notion
of a self and its abilities but on the nirvanic power of
Amitabha, a refinement of the Mahayana concept of
adhisthana (base, power, approach, establish). According
to Japanese sources, this constitutes a second
transmission lineage.
One of the greatest successors in Tanluan’s line is
Daochuo (562–645), who, inspired by Tanluan’s writings,
wrote Anle ji (A Collection of [Passages Concerning
Birth in the Land of] Peace and Bliss), and
promoted the idea of the DECLINE OF THE DHARMA and
the idea that the nianfo samadhi was the highest sama
dhi. Shandao (613–681) was the most influential
master in this lineage. At first he studied on Mount
Lu and achieved some success practicing according to
the Pratyutpannasamadhi-sutra. He later became
Daochuo’s disciple and was able to attain the nianfo
samadhi. Shandao reaffirmed Tanluan’s and
Daochuo’s positions while developing further the
overall doctrine. Although he discussed many Pure
Land practices, he placed great emphasis on nianfo; he
taught that nianfo was sufficient for rebirth in the Pure
Land and that Amitabha was a sambhogakaya buddha.
Shandao delineated three types of confidence: sincere
confidence, deep confidence, and confidence that
seeks rebirth. Shandao also taught visualization methods
and repentance, and developed the famous parable
of the two rivers (fire-anger and water-greed) and
the white path (the Pure Land path leading from
SAM SARA to NIRVAN A) over the rivers. On the near side
akyamuni stands, indicating that we should cross. On
the far side, Amitabha stands, indicating that we
should come.
A third line of Pure Land began with Cimin (680–
748), who had traveled in India and began spreading
Pure Land teachings after his return. Cimin composed
Jingtu cibei ji (The Pure Land Compassion Collection;
partially extant), Xifang zan (Western Quarter Chant),
and Pratyutpannasamadhi Chant. His teachings emphasized
meditation, study, recitation, and precepts.
The line that developed from the Pratyutpannasamadhisu
tra also become part of the TIANTAI SCHOOL as ZHIYI
(538–597) incorporated it into his system of practice.
Zhiyi was a devotee of Amitabha (and other buddhas).
In addition, he worked on the problem of classifying
the different types of Pure Lands and developed the
constant walking samadhi, which is focused on
Amitabha, a core practice for Tiantai.
From the Tang dynasty on, Tiantai forms of Pure
Land practice were influenced by developments both
within the school and from outside. Tiantai followers
helped make Pure Land part of daily life during the
Song dynasty (960–1279) and thereafter by forming
White Lotus societies and engaging in other activities
to spread the tradition.
The Pure Land teachings were also influential in
the CHAN SCHOOL. The Tiantai form influenced the
fourth Chan patriarch Daoxin (580–651). Xuanshi, a
disciple of the fifth patriarch, Hongren (688–761),
founded the Southern Mountain Chan of the Nian Fo
Gate school. Baizhang (749–814) incorporated Pure
Land practices into his Chan rules, which are the behavioral
code for Chan monasteries. YANSHOU
(904–975) was influenced by Cimin’s line. Of particular
note is Yinyan Longqi (1592–1673), who became
the founder of the O baku Zen school in Japan. The
idea of Pure Land practice even becomes the KO AN,
“Who recites the nian fo.”
There were many significant figures in Chinese
Buddhist history who, although masters of different
teachings such as Huayan and Sanlun, were influential
in the overall development of Pure Land thought and
practice. In fact, Pure Land teachings became so ubiquitous
in Chinese Buddhism that to speak of them as
a school is a misnomer.
Pure Land teachings in Japan
Gyogi (668–749), while cultivating donations for the
building of Todaiji in Nara, spread the Pure Land
teachings to the populace by publicly reciting the nenbutsu
(Chinese, nianfo) and teaching people about the
Pure Land in their homes. Chiko (709–780), a resident
of Nara’s Gangoji, wrote a now lost commentary to
Vasubandhu’s Discourse and had a MANDALA painted
after his vision of the Pure Land. These are the major
Pure Land activities during the early period.
SAICHO (767–822), the founder of Tendai (Chinese,
Tiantai) in Japan, introduced the teachings on
Amitabha associated with this line of transmission. ENNIN
(794–864), Saicho’s main disciple in addition to
those mentioned above, learned the “nianfo in five
movements” while in China. Upon his return to Japan,
he blended the “constant walking samadhi” with the
“five movements” and created the nonstop (fudan)
nenbutsu. He also seems to have known some esoteric
aspects of Amitabha lore. With these beginnings
Tendai became the fountainhead of Pure Land teachings
in Japan for many centuries with masters like
Ryogen (912–985), Ryonin (1072–1134), and many
more. Of special distinction is the great master and
prolific writer GENSHIN (942–1017), who composed
some twenty works on Pure Land teachings, including
the celebrated Ojoyoshu (Essentials for Birth).
The Heian period witnessed Amitabha sages who
helped spread the teachings to the general population.
Several of these are historically significant. Koya (903–
972), a Tendai monk, performed many good works and
taught the nenbutsu in the Nagoya, Kyoto, and northern
Japan. Senkan (918–983), Koya’s disciple, wrote
Gokurakukoku Mida wasan (Sukhavatl Realm Amida
Chant) and many other works. Koya strictly observed
the PRECEPTS and established eight rules and ten vows
for his disciples. In addition, masters associated with
many other schools of Japanese Buddhism also practiced
and promoted Pure Land teachings.
The Kamakura period saw an emphasis on finding
the one primary practice that was sufficient for awakening,
an effort that brought theretofore exclusive
practices to the fore and led to a simplification of considerable
lore throughout Japanese Buddhism. The
first major figure to address this effort as it related
to Pure Land teachings was HO NEN (1133–1212), a
learned Tendai priest. He wrote a commentary to Genshin’s
work, which became the standard of interpretation.
In 1198 Honen wrote Senchaku hongan nenbutsu
shu (Passages on the Selection of the Nenbutsu in the
Original Vow), which explained the essentials of the
nenbutsu way, including exclusive recitation, theory of
the Pure Land lineage, emphasis on the three sutras,
and welcoming by Amitabha at the time of death.
Honen’s writings generally accepted the interpretation
of the Shandao line. He also transmitted the bodhisattva
precepts, and his teachings formed the basis
of the Jodo school.
Among Honen’s important disciples, SHINRAN
(1173–1262) is of particular note. Like Honen, Shinran
was first trained as a Tendai scholar-practitioner.
He lived as an openly married priest and propagated
Pure Land teachings near eastern Tokyo. He wrote a
number of works including Kyogyoshinsho (Teaching,
Practice, Faith, and Attainment). A new sect (Jodo Shinshu
) was based on his interpretations of the Pure Land
teachings. Shinran considered Amitabha to be the Adi
Buddha, and he emphasizes “other power,” exclusive
nenbutsu, crosswise transcendence (instant and gradual
attainment of awakening with Pure Land birth), the
disadvantages of the path of sages, and the advantages
of the Pure Land path. He also emphasized one vehicle
(the nenbutsu), the dharma ending age, and that
“confidence” or “faith” is endowed by the Tathagata,
is Buddha-nature, and is the key to liberation.
The last great Pure Land master of the Kamakura
period was IPPEN CHISHIN (1239–1289), who studied
under a second-generation disciple of Honen. Ippen
had an awakening while in retreat at Kumanojin-ji and
afterward spread the “dancing nenbutsu” teaching,
which expresses the joy of the liberating power of
Amitabha. The Ji school is based on his teachings.
Although Chinese and Japanese practices and interpretations
have developed along different lines,
taken as a whole they help form a rich fabric for the
tapestry of the greater Pure Land tradition.
See also: Buddhanusmrti (Recollection of the Buddha);
Horyuji and Todaiji; Kamakura Buddhism,
Japan; Nenbutsu (Chinese, Nianfo; Korean, Yo?mbul);
Pure Land Buddhism
Foard, James; Solomon, Michael; and Payne, Richard K.; eds.
The Pure Land Tradition: History and Development. Berkeley:
Regents of the University of California, 1996.
Haar, B. J. ter. The White Lotus Teachings in Chinese Religious
History. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1992.
Inagaki, Hisao. The Three Pure Land Sutras. Kyoto: Nagata Bunshodo,
Ono, Gemmyo. “On the Pure Land Doctrine of Tz’u-Min.”
Eastern Buddhist 5, nos. 2–3 (1930): 200–210.
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11911СообщениеДобавлено: Вс 19 Фев 06, 00:56 (11 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Shinran (Zenshin, Shakku; 1173–1263) was a Pure
Land Buddhist teacher of medieval Japan and founder
of the Jodo Shinshu (Shin Buddhism) tradition. His
teachings focused on FAITH (shinjin) in conjunction
with the practice of the nenbutsu, invoking Amida
(AMITABHA) Buddha’s name, as the basis for birth in
the Pure Land, where he believed Buddhist enlightenment
is immediate. Shinran considered the Buddha’s
power, rather than human effort, to be the motive force
behind all true religious practice and behind enlightenment
itself. The Shinshu, in accord with Shinran’s
own example, broke with the Buddhist tradition of
clerical celibacy, and allowed priests to marry and have
families. Three centuries later, Shinran’s modest following
grew into a huge and powerful Buddhist school
headed by Honganji in Kyoto, which originated at his
Shinran spent the first twenty years of his career as
a Tendai monk on Mount Hiei, but in 1201, after a
hundred-day religious retreat at the Rokkakudo chapel
in Kyoto, he abandoned monastic life and became the
disciple of HO NEN (1133-1212). In 1207 Shinran was
banished to Echigo province (present-day Niigata prefecture)
in a general suppression of Honen’s Pure Land
movement that occurred after provocative behavior by
certain followers. Shinran never saw his teacher again,
and for over twenty-five years he lived away from Kyoto.
The last two decades of this period were spent in
the Kanto region (around modern-day Tokyo), where
Shinran became a peripatetic Pure Land teacher. His
marriage occurred shortly before, or soon after, his
banishment. Shinran continued to dress in Buddhist
clerical robes and shaved his head as priests do, even
while living with his wife, Eshinni (1182–ca. 1268), and
their children.
The gist of Shinran’s teaching is that Amida Buddha
has vowed to bring all living beings to enlightenment,
and the power of his vow surpasses any religious
practice humans can perform. Thus, the consummate
religious state is single-hearted reliance on Amida, or
faith. This faith is none other than the Buddha operating
in a person, rather than a person’s own created
mental condition. The nenbutsu, likewise, is an act initiated
by Amida, as well as an extension of him in the
world. When people hear Amida’s name it awakens
them to his grand vow, and when they intone the nenbutsu
their practice coalesces with Amida’s compassionate
activity. The upshot of this teaching is that
Amida’s saving power extends to everyone without differentiation:
clerical or lay, male or female, good or
evil. In fact, evildoers are a prime object of Amida’s
vow (akunin shoki).
Shinran returned to Kyoto in the early 1230s. By
that time he had completed a preliminary draft of his
magnum opus, Kyogyoshinsho (Teaching, Practice,
Faith, and Attainment). He spent the rest of his days
in Kyoto, but remained in touch with his Kanto followers
through letters and occasional visits on their
part. In old age he dedicated himself to study and writing,
completing his Kyogyoshinsho and composing a
variety of other Buddhist works, including wasan
hymns. His wife and most of their children moved to
Echigo in the 1250s to live on property she inherited.
But Shinran remained in Kyoto with their youngest
daughter Kakushinni (1224–1283), who looked after
him in his last years. He died in Kyoto in 1263, chanting
Amida’s name and surrounded by followers. Many
revered him as an earthly manifestation of Amida Buddha
or of Kannon (Avalokites?vara) Bodhisattva.
See also: Japan; Kamakura Buddhism, Japan; Nenbutsu
(Chinese, Nianfo; Korean, Yo?mbul); Pure Land
Buddhism; Pure Land Schools
Bloom, Alfred. Shinran’s Gospel of Pure Grace. Tucson: University
of Arizona Press, 1965.
Dobbins, James C. Jodo Shinshu: Shin Buddhism in Medieval
Japan (1989). Reprint, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press,
Hirota, Dennis, et al., trans. The Collected Works of Shinran, 2
vols. Kyoto: Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, 1997.
Keel, Hee Sung. Understanding Shinran: A Dialogical Approach.
Fremont, CA: Asian Humanities Press, 1995.
Ueda, Yoshifumi, and Hirota, Dennis. Shinran: An Introduction
to His Thought. Kyoto: Hongwanji International Center,
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11970СообщениеДобавлено: Вс 19 Фев 06, 20:33 (11 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Crying or Very sad  Про Судзуки забыли.
поговорим в аду
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11994СообщениеДобавлено: Вс 19 Фев 06, 23:05 (11 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Daisetsu Teitaro Suzuki (1870–1966) was one of the
most important individuals involved in the twentiethcentury
spread of Japanese Buddhism, particularly
Zen, to the West. A lay popularizer of Japanese spirituality,
Suzuki resided in the United States for two extended
periods, in the early twentieth century and
again in the 1950s. Through his distinctive lectures and
voluminous, though idiosyncratic, writings in English,
Suzuki sparked an interest in Zen and Japanese culture
among many influential Western scholars, intellectuals,
artists, and writers.
See also: Chan School; Japan; Zen, Popular Conceptions
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12004СообщениеДобавлено: Пн 20 Фев 06, 06:50 (11 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

От спасибо!

Про Судзуки, однако, они поскупились на информацию. Наверное потому, что он многими воспринимается не как учитель, а как всего лишь мирской буддолог, к тому же популяризатор. Любят покритиковать его некоторые. Про то, что он был учителем не только Дзэн, но и Син (буддизма Чистой Земли) - вообще не вспоминают.

поговорим в аду
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12158СообщениеДобавлено: Чт 23 Фев 06, 14:12 (11 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Вот я и установил eMule, а что делать дальше не понимаю.  Question Объясните популярным языком, пожалуйста, как решить конкретную задачу - скачать энциклопедию.
поговорим в аду
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12159СообщениеДобавлено: Чт 23 Фев 06, 14:20 (11 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Дайсин пишет:
Вот я и установил eMule, а что делать дальше не понимаю.  Question Объясните популярным языком, пожалуйста, как решить конкретную задачу - скачать энциклопедию.
Ссылка в начале треда (в первом сообщении).
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12169СообщениеДобавлено: Чт 23 Фев 06, 16:23 (11 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Я жму на "чудо", запускается "осел", и больше ничего не происходит!  Very Happy Я понимаю, что в глазах программистов я выгляжу дебилом. Sad
поговорим в аду
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12174СообщениеДобавлено: Чт 23 Фев 06, 18:03 (11 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Для начала надо подключиться к серверу.
Лучше всего к Razorback 2.0.

Для этого заходим во вкладку Servers, находим в списке вышеозначенный сервер, и кликаем на нём мышкой два раза. Если там, где должен быть список, пусто, идём сюда http://ed2k.2x4u.de/index.html , и оттуда добавляем минимальный список серверов, 25 штук в котором.

После переходим во вкладку Transfers. Тот файл, что мы хотим скачать должен быть в верхнем поле. Если его там нет, то мы туды добавляем ссылку на него. (ссылка дана в первом сообщении треда). Потом правой кнопкой щёлкаем по файлу и выбираем Resume.

И вообще, чтобы освоиться в программе, рекомендую не стесняясь пощёлкать мышкой по интерфейсу "осла" и про правую кнопку не забывать.

"Всё есть страдание" - это диагноз не всем, и не всему, а только самому себе.
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12177СообщениеДобавлено: Чт 23 Фев 06, 20:12 (11 лет тому назад)     Ответ с цитатой

Так-так. Все замечательно, только не нашел кнопки Resume. Файл стоит в очереди со статусом "ожидание". При этом я подключен к Razorback 2.0. И еще вопрос: как осуществлять поиск в этих сетях, и чем отличается ed2k от kad?
поговорим в аду
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Тред сейчас никто не читает.
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